Aus dem Zeitungsarchiv
Die Gründung des Staates Israel am 14. Mai 1948 erfolgte mitten im Bürgerkrieg.
Die regionale englisch-sprachige Tageszeitung Palestine Post berichtete in ihrer ersten Ausgabe nach der Proklamation in mehreren Beiträgen über die politische und militärische Situation.
Ausgabe Sonntag, 16. Mai 1948*
STATE OF ISRAEL IS BORN
The first independent Jewish State in 19 centuries was born in Tel Aviv as the British Mandate over Palestine came to an end at midnight on Friday, and it was immediately subjected to the test of fire. As „Medinat Yisrael“ (State of Israel) was proclaimed, the battle for Jerusalem ratted, with most of the city galling to the Jews.
At the same time, President Truman announced that the United States would accord recognition to the new State.
A few hours later, Palestine was invaded by Moslem armies from the south, east and north, and Tel Aviv was raided from the air.
On Friday the United Nations Special Assembly adjourned after adopting a resolution to appoint a mediator but without taking any action on the Partition Resolution of November 29.
Yesterday the battle for the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv road was still under way, and two Arab villages were taken.
In the north, Acre town was captured, and the Jewish Army consolidated its positions in western Galilee.
Proclamation by Head of Government
The creation of „Medinat Yisrael“, the State of Israel, was proclaimed at midnight on Friday by Mr. David Ben Gurion, until then Chairman of the Jewish Agency executive and now head of the State’s Provisional Counsil of Government.
The first act of the Council of Government, as announced by its head, was to abolish all legislation of the 1939 White Paper of the late Mandatory Power, particularly the Ordinances and Orders relating so immigration and land transfer.
In the declaration of independence, Mr. Ben Gurion called on the Arabs of Palestine to restore peace, assuring them full civic rights and full representation in all governmental organs of the State.
Mr. Ben Gurion prefaced the declaration with a review of the historic connection of the Jewish people with the Land of Israel and of their efforts to return, which never ceased throughout the generations of their dispersal, until the Nazi holocaust proved anew the urgency of the need for a Jewish State.
The Balfour Declaration of 1917, confirmed by the League of Nations, had given explicit International recognition to the right of the Jewish people to reconstitute its National Home in Palestine, he said.
„On November 29, 1947,“ continued the declaration „the United Nations derided on the establishment of a Jewish State and an Arab State in Palestine and called upon the inhabitants of the country to take all steps necessary for the establishment of the two States.
„This decision cannot now be changed. Accordingly, we, the members of the Provisional Government Council, members as we are of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, and representatives of the entire Jewish Community in Palestine, are meeting on this historic day when the British Mandate comes to its end.
„Pursuant to the decision of the U.N., and based on our historic and national rights, we hereby declare the establishment of the Jewish Slate which will he called „Medinat Yisrael“ (State of Israel).
„Long Live the Jewish State.
This State will be provisionally governed by this Council acting as a Provisional Government Council and taking over its duties at mid-night, on May 15, with the end of the Mandate.
„This Provisional Government Council will function until due governmental bodies have been constituted by a newly elected Constituent Assembly, which shall meet not later than October 1, 1948.
„The Provisional Government Council will be the Provisional Government of the State of Israel until the elected Constituent Assembly meets.
The Gates Are Open
„The State of Israel will open its gates to immigration of Jews from all lands. It will strive to develop the country for the benefit of all inhabitants, in accordance with the social ideals of our Prophets.
„We declare that full civil land political liberty will be enjoyed by all citizens, regardless of religion, race or sex. There will be full freedom of religion, culture and language.
„We declare that we shall safeguard the Holy Places of all religions within the area of the State of Israel.
„We declare our readiness to cooperate closely with all relevant bodies of the U.N. in accordance with the resolution of November 29, 1947.
„We declare our readiness to work for the economic union of Palestine ae a whole.
„We call upon the U.N. to give its blessing t0 the establishment of the Jewish State to help us in our efforts and to accept the Jewish State into the family of nations.
„Even at this hour of bloodshed, we call upon the Arabs of Palestine to restore peace in this country. We call upon the Arab citizens to return to their homes. We assure them full civic rights on the basis of full representation in all governmental organs of the State. We are extending the hand of friendship to the neighbouring Arab States in order to initiate mutual co-operation. We are ready to contribute our share to the revival of the Middle Est.
„We call upon the Jewish people in all lands of its dispersion to stand fast and lend us every support in our struggle for the establishment of the State of Israel.“
Mr. Ben Gurion then announced that those members of the Provisional Council who were in Jerusalem and unable to reach Tel Aviv in time for the meeting, had met in Jerusalem on Friday morning and had notified their colleagues in Tel Aviv that they joined in the declaration.
„In virtue of this authority,“ Mr. Ben Gurion then said, „the Provisional Council of Government is established.“
He made these two points:
(1) „It is the highest legislative organ of Medinat Yisrael with the right to enact laws until the Elected Assembly is constituted. The Provisional Cabinet (of 13 members) will take over its duties from tomorrow.
(2) „All legislation resulting from the British Government’s White Paper of May, 1939, will at midnight tonight become null and void. This includes the immigration provisions as well as the land transfer regulations of February, 1940.
„Legislation concerning security and emergency legislation will he published and enacted in due course.“
Earlier on Friday. the Jewish Agency issued a statement in which it said that despite the friction between the Mandatory and the Yishuv brought about by the British White Paper nine years ago. Jewry appreciated Britain’s assistance in settling Jews from all over the world in Palestine and helping to establish the National Home.
Staatsgründung im Bürgerkrieg
Der Bürgerkrieg in Palästina hat nicht erst mit der Ausrufung des Staates Israel begonnen, sondern Monate zuvor.
Als jedoch David Ben Gurion den jüdischen Staat ausrief, erklärten die arabischen Nachbarstaaten Israel den Krieg.
Von den arabischen Armeen war nur eine eine ernsthafte Bedrohung: Die gut ausgerüstete „Arabische Legion“ Jordaniens. Sie griff sofort in den Kampf um Jerusalem ein.
Die Palestine Post schrieb:
Arab Legion Cross Border
It was reported in Jerusalem last night that troops od the Arab Legion had crossed the border into Palestine in two places, over Allenby Bridge and near the Palestine Electric Power Station at Naharaim.
According to Reuters, the long convoy of the first route of lorry-borne troops, artillery and armored cars, was headed by King Abdullah, who fired a symbolic pistol shot towards Palestine and wished his troops success in their campaign.
Aus jüdischer Sicht war Jerusalem in besonderer Gefahr. Zum einen war die lebenswichtige Verbindungsstraße von Tel Aviv nach Jerusalem schon von arabischen Einheiten belagert. Zum anderen stellte die Legion eine ernshafte Bedrohung für die jüdischen Kräfte in Jerusalem dar. Die Haganah, die sich im Zuge der Staatsgründung von der bisherigen Untergrundarmee in die reguläre Armee Israels wandelte, versuchte in Jerusalem so früh wie möglich Boden gut zu machen.
Die Palestine Post berichtete:
JEWS TAKE OYER SECUITY ZONES
The Battle for Jerusalem, which began when the British forces withdrew on Friday morning, continued all day Friday and yesterday.
The crackle of small-arms fire and explosions of mortar shells were still being heard in the early hours of this morning as the battle entered its third day.
Repeated efforts on Friday evening and again on Saturday by the U.N. Truce Commission to bring about a „cease fire“ were brought to nought when the Arab representatives failed to agree within the specified time limit.
On Friday morning, Jewish forces entered the Russian Compound and Zone C to re-occupy the buildings requisitioned from Jews last year.
This operation was almost bloodless, but beyond the western edge of Zone C, Arabs engaged the Jews In Jaffa Road. The Arabs were forced back and the Barclays Bank area was taken.
In other parts of the city fighting flared up. Jews overran one after another the areas evacuated by the British.
By last night, the quarters and strongpoints held by Haganah included the German Colony and part of the Baka’a Quar-ter in Zone A, all of Zone B except for the Red Cross area, Sheikh Jarrah (where the Jewish flag was flown from the Mufti’s House), the Mea Shearim Police Station and Allenby Barracks on the Bethlehem Road.
The I.Z.L.** were in occupation of the Scopus Police Billet.
Yesterday afternoon eight cannon shelled Jewish Jerusalem from the Arab village of Nebi Samwil, more than 100 shells falling in the north-western quarters.
Several persons were injured. Jewish casualties in the two days of fighting were eight killed and a number of wounded. Arab casualties are not known.
An der Küste und in Galiläa hatten die israelischen Einheiten klar die Oberhand:
Acre. the sea-coast town across the bay from Haifa, was captured by Jewish forces yesterday, the Haganah Radio reported.
The surrender of the town, and subsequently two villages to the north, came after a strong Jewish attack.
Arms dumps containing enormous quantities of military equipment were captured.
The B.B.C. stated yesterday that almost all of Western Galilee was In Jewish hands, but that Naharayim on the Jordan, had been occupied by the Legion.
Der Bürgerkrieg würde erst im darauf folgenden Jahr enden.
*Aufgrund des Schabbat erschien am Tag nach der Proklamation (15.Mai) keine Zeitung.
** I.Z.L. Abkürzung für Irgun Zwai Leumi, die radikale jüdische Untergrundorganisation, die während des Unabhängigkeitskrieges – im Gegensatz zur Zeit zuvor – mit der Haganah kooperierte
Hervorhebungen im Text nicht im Original.