Jüdische Siedlungen in der von Israel seit 1967 besetzten Westbank und Ost-Jerusalem sind ein umstrittenes Thema. Viele Regierungen und Institutionen werten den Siedlungsbau als schädlich für den Frieden in Nahost.
Es gibt aber auch Gegenstimmen.
Februar 2014 – Ze’ev Elkin, stellvertretender israelischer Außenminister (bei einer pro-Siedlungsdemonstration im Gebiet “E1” zwischen Jerusalem und Maale Adumim).
We’re here to tell the whole world that the land is ours and we have the right to build on it.
Februar 2014 – Außenministerium Russlands
Wir bekräftigen die Notwendigkeit, von beliebigen einseitigen Schritten abzusehen. Das betrifft vor allem die Siedlungspolitik (Israels) auf den okkupierten palästinensischen Territorien, darunter Ostjerusalem. Solche Schritte könnten sich negativ auf die palästinensisch-israelischen Verhandlungen auswirken und ihren Ausgang entsprechend vorprogrammieren
Januar 2014 – Benjamin Netanjahu, israelischer Premierminister
I have no intention of evacuating any settlement or uprooting any Israelis
Juni 2013 – Naftali Bennett, israelischer Wirtschaftsminister
This land has been ours for 3,000 years.
There was never a Palestinian state here and we were never occupiers.
The house is ours and we are residents here, not the occupiers.
The most important thing in the land of Israel is to build, build, build.
It is important that there will be an Israeli presence everywhere.
Mai 2013 - Jen Psaki, Sprecher des US Außenministeriums
Israelis must recognize that continued construction in East Jerusalem is counterproductive to the cause of peace and that an independent Palestine must be viable, with real borders that have to be drawn
Mai 2013 – Jimmy Manyi, Regierungssprecher der Regierung Südafrikas
[South Africa] recognizes the 1948 borders delineated by the United Nations, and does not recognize occupied territories beyond these borders as being part of the state of Israel.
März 2013 – Barack Obama, US Präsident
I’ve been clear with Prime Minister Netanyahu and other Israeli leadership that … we do not consider continued settlement activity to be constructive, to be appropriate, to be something that can advance the cause of peace
Februar 2013 – Gideon Levy, Journalist der Ha’aretz
Israelis love to love the settlers. They have replaced the kibbutz and Palmach, on whose values Israelis have been raised. The settlers are not Diaspora-like, like the ultra-Orthodox. Their violence and extortion are accepted with inconceivable tolerance; after all, they are considered to have the highest values of anyone.
Dezember 2012 – Note der britischen Botschaft in Israel
The recent Israeli government decision to build 3,000 new housing units threatens the two-state solution and makes progress through negotiations harder to achieve. We have called on the Israeli government to reconsider.
Dezember 2012 – Saeb Erekat, palästinensischer Chefunterhändler
[building jewish settlements in area E1 / Westbank] destroys the two-state solution, (establishing) East Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine and practically ends the peace process and any opportunity to talk about negotiations in the future
Dezember 2012 – Benjamin Netanjahu, israelischer Premierminister
We will carry on building in Jerusalem and in all the places on the map of Israel’s strategic interests.
Dezember 2012 – Jose Manuel Garcia-Margallo, spanischer Außenminister
These are not steps towards peace, these are steps towards the extension of the conflict.
August 2012 – Rabbi Eli Sadan (Siedlung Eli), über die Strategie der Siedler künftig die Staatsanwaltschaft auf die eigene Seite zu zwingen
Every lawyer belonging to the national camp must vie for every legal position in the civil service. That way, in 10- to 15 years, there will be a significant cadre of right-wing legal experts and the left won’t control the State Prosecutor’s Office anymore.
August 2012 – Pinchas Wallerstein, ein Siedlerführer, angesichts der Räumung der kleinen Siedlung Migron
The personal pain is terrible. But history showed that the evacuation of Sebastia led to the establishment of Elon Moreh. In the end many Migrons will arise.
April 2012 – William Hague, britischer Außenminister
Systematic, illegal Israeli settlement activity poses the most significant and live threat to the viability of the two state solution.
The Israeli government’s policy is illegal under international law, counterproductive, destabilising and provocative.
Januar 2012 – Yoram Kaniuk, populärer israelischer Schriftsteller (“Adam Hundesohn”, “1948″)
Heute haben wir eine halbe Million Siedler in den besetzten Gebieten, die mehr mit Hooligans als mit Juden in meinem Sinne zu tun haben. Und sie geben den Ton an. Was kann man bei einer solchen Mehrheit, die das Falsche will, schon tun?
Dezember 2011 – Shimon Peres, israelischer Staatspräsident, nach der Brandstiftung einer Moschee durch jüdische Siedler
What these guys are doing is very serious.
Israel has always been proud of protecting all of the holy sites.
Today, when the Muslim world is where it is, to give them justification to attack Israel is a disaster, it’s crazy and it must stopped.
September 2011 – Joe Walsh, republikanischer Kongressabgeordneter, zur möglichen israelischen Übernahme der palästinensischen Westbbank
We will respect Israel’s right to annex Judea and Samaria.
Juli 2011 – Henry Siegman, 16 Jahre lang Vorsitzender der Lobby American Jewish Congress (AJC)
If there is anything to be learned from years of disappointment and failure, it’s that the so-called peace process is simply a vehicle for Israel to pretend there is some potential for progress even as on the ground they are making it impossible because of their settlement project.
There is a basic dishonesty here.
Mai 2011 – Danny Ayalon, stellvertretender israelische Außenminister unter Avigdor Lieberman
The conflict has never been about territory so the basis for negotiations should not be territorial.
Februar 2011 – Hillary Clinton
I think it is absolutely clear to say, number one, that it’s been American policy for many years that settlements were illegitimate and it is the continuing goal and highest priority of the Obama administration to keep working toward a two-state solution with both Israelis and Palestinians.
Dezember 2010 – Yigal Palmor, Sprecher des israelischen Außenministeriums, in Reaktion auf den Brief von 26 ehemaligen europäischen Führern, die Sanktionen angesichts des fortgesetzten Siedlungsbaus forderten:
It is difficult to see how the call for sanctions and Israel’s isolation will promote peace, but clearly this will diminish the EU’s capability to play a constructive role in promoting peace in the region
Dezember 2010 – Hillary Clinton
We do not accept the legitimacy of continued settlement activity.
We believe their continued expansion is corrosive not only to peace efforts and two-state solution, but to Israel’s future itself.
What is Washington thinking? Settlements are illegal; they contravene UN Resolution 242 and violate the Fourth Geneva Convention.
The resumption of direct talks cannot be based on one side negotiating its way out of an important question of international law.
November 2010 – Gro Harlem Brundtlandt, ehem. norwegische Ministerpräsidentin, nun Mitglied der Eminent Global Groups
During the Oslo process in 1993 Israel promised to stop settlement expansion pending the outcome of final status negotiations.
November 2010 -Mary Robinson, ehem. irische Präsidentin, nun Mitglied der Eminent Global Groups
We heard repeatedly across the Arab world that the United States is no longer seen as an honest broker: Washington is perceived to be too close to Israel.
This effort [of president Obama] to do a short-term deal on settlements to restart direct talks is desperate and wrong. It betrays international law and the entire family of nations – not to mention the Palestinians.
September 2010 – Naftali Bennett (Generalsekretär der orthodox-nationalistischen Siedlerorganisation Yesha Council)
Our policy now is to resume a natural pace of building.
September 2010 – Nazmi Salman (Bürgermeister von Deir Istiya – Westbank -)
The most crucial thing is settlements, for me and the majority of Palestinians.
All Palestinians know [there will be] no peace with settlements.
September 2010 – Catherine Ashton, Außenbeauftragte der EU
[...] more than anything, we would like to see, of course, the moratorium on settlement building continue, [ to ] see the opportunity for President Abbas to stay in the [ peace ] talks and for them [ the Palestinians ] to move forward to a successful conclusion
März 2010 – Benjamin Netanjahu, israelischer Premierminister 1996-1999 und seit 2009
The building in Jerusalem – and in all other places – will continue in the same way as has been customary over the last 42 years.
For the past 40 years, no Israeli government ever limited construction in the neighborhoods of Jerusalem
März 2010 – US Präsident Obama, nachdem das israelische Innenministerium den Bau weiterer 1600 Wohnungen just zu dem Zeitpunkt angekündigt hat, zu dem Vizepräsident Joe Biden zu Besuch in Jerusalem war:
The actions that were taken by the interior minister in Israel weren’t helpful to that [peace] process
März 2010 – Jonas Gar Store, norwegischer Außenminister
Norway deeply deplores Israel’s expansion of its settlement in East Jerusalem.
The peace process is in a critical phase, and Israel’s decision is jeopardising the process.
März 2010 – Stephen Smith, australischer Außenminister
I share the view that this is a bad decision at the wrong time, and it’s not a helpful contribution to the peace process
März 2010 – James Baker III., US-Außenminister, im Rückblick:
Republican and Democratic administration have always said that settlements are an obstacle to peace
September 2009 – Bernard Kouchner, französischer Außenminister
It will be more difficult or even impossible to reach an agreement [on peace talks resumption] if there is no agreement on freezing the colonization
September 2009 – Europäische Union
The European Union expresses its serious concern over Israel’s approval of additional settlement construction.
Settlements are illegal under international law and constitute an obstacle to peace.
The European Union reiterates its call on Israel to immediately end settlement activities, including in East Jerusalem and including natural growth, and to dismantle all outposts erected since March 2001.
Mai 2009 – Hillary Clinton, US Außenministerin, mit ihrem berühmten dreifachen “Nein”: Keine neuen Siedlungen, keine sogenannten Vorposten, kein “natürliches Wachstum”
He [ President Obama ] wants to see a stop to settlements —
not some settlements,
not ‘natural growth’ exceptions
That is our position. That is what we have communicated very clearly
Mai 2009 – Frank-Walter Steinmeier, deutscher Außenminister
Der Siedlungsausbau und -neubau in der Westbank und in Ost-Jerusalem ist für uns nicht akzeptabel
April 2009 – Hillary Clinton, US Außenministerin, nach einem Gespräch mit Ägyptens Präsident Mubarak:
We do not accept the legitimacy of settlement activity. Ending all settlement activity current and future would be preferable [...] we would like to see everything [ i.e. settlements ] ended forever
Februar 2009 – Hasdai Eliezer , Bürgermeister der in der Westbank gelegenen jüdischen Siedlung Alfei Menashe
the settlement blocs are not up for negotiation
Februar 2009 – Ehud Barak, israelischer Verteidigungsminister
the settlement blocs are an inseparable part of Israel in all future negotiations with the Palestinians.
The Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea are regions that are dear to my heart.
Dezember 2008 – Gordon Brown, britischer Premierminister
Everybody now sees the contours of what a two-state solution would look like …
One of the blockages to that is clearly the settlement issue.
We have consistently said – and I’ve said this to successive Israeli prime ministers and presidents when I’ve met them – we’ve consistently seen that as a barrier to reaching the agreement that everybody thinks is possible
Juni 2008 – Condoleezza Rice, US Außenministerin, angesichts der fortgesetzten israelischen Verletzung der im Jahr 2003 vereinbarten Road Map, in der u.a. der Bau weiterer Siedlungen in umstrittenem Gebiet ausgeschlossen sein sollte:
I’m very concerned that at a time when we need to build confidence between the parties, the continued building and the settlement activity has the potential to harm the negotiations going forward [...]
We’ve talked a great deal about road map obligations, and this one isn’t being met
April 2008 – Ehud Olmert, israelischer Premierminister
There is a certain contradiction in this [settlements issue] between what we’re actually seeing and what we ourselves promised.
[Background: Israel has long maintained that it has the right to continue building in existing settlements to account for ill-defined "natural growth" of the existing settler population — something the "road map" explicitly bans. But in his interview with The Jerusalem Post, Olmert acknowledged that Israel was not honoring its commitments.]
März 2008 – Sergej Lavrov, russsischer Außenminister, nach einem Besuch von Palästinenserpräsident Mahmoud Abbas:
We are worried by the Israeli settlement activity and urge Israel to end it
Februar 2008 – Bernard Kouchner, französischer Außenminister
We are totally against the settlement policy. There can’t be a trust between the two sides while settlement activity is going on
The UN position on the illegality of settlements is well known [...]
This new tender for 300 new homes in east Jerusalem so soon after this Annapolis Middle East peace conference, I think, is not helpful
Juni 2007 – Daniela Weiss – Populäre Siedlerführerin
I feel myself being part of a Biblical scene.
It was a very dramatic change in my life and when I see now over 200 communities and outposts and villages and 260,000 Jews in these communities I feel I am part of a huge Zionist miracle.
The rights of the Jews to return to their homeland stem from a history of 4,000 years and then an intermission of 2,000 years was imposed. Did it take away our right? Or were our everlasting prayers a constant link?
I, of course, believe it was a constant link that was revived with Zionism.
2007 – Danny Dayan, Vorsitzender des Siedlerrats in der Westbank (Yesha Council)
Any attempt to evacuate even one prefab home must be met with massive, determined resistance from our side.
We must rejuvenate our ties with the settlements and bring masses of people everywhere ….
We are certainly calling on the [West Bank] residents to oppose in the manner that we know.
März 2006 – Jimmy Carter, US Präsident, in einem Artikel,der in weltweit 70 Zeitungen gedruckt wurde:
Israel’s occupation of Palestine has obstructed a comprehensive peace agreement in the Holy Land [...]
Although president Bill Clinton made strong efforts to promote peace, a massive increase of settlers occurred during his administration, to 225,000, mostly while Ehud Barak was prime minister. [...]
Palestinians must live in peace and dignity, and permanent Israeli settlements on their land are a major obstacle to this goal.
August 2004 – Kofi Annan, UN Generalsekretär (Wiedergabe durch dessen Sprecher)
The Secretary-General expresses strong concern over reports of Israeli settlement expansion in the West Bank, through the Government of Israel’s recent publication of tenders for construction of new housing units [...]
[Such activities] clearly contradict Israel’s obligations under the Road Map [which unequivocally calls for a freeze on all settlement activity, the spokesman noted, pointing out that this also covers what is called "natural growth," namely the construction of housing within the existing boundaries of a given settlement.]
April 2004 – George W. Bush, US Präsident, Brief an Israels Premier Ariel Scharon
In light of new realities on the ground, including already existing major Israeli populations centers [settlements], it is unrealistic to expect that the outcome of final status negotiations will be a full and complete return to the armistice lines of 1949, and all previous efforts to negotiate a two-state solution have reached the same conclusion. It is realistic to expect that any final status agreement will only be achieved on the basis of mutually agreed changes that reflect these realities.
Dezember 2003 – Ariel Scharon, israelischer Premierminister
I have committed to the President of the United States that Israel will dismantle unauthorized outposts. It is my intention to implement this commitment.
The State of Israel is governed by law, and the issue of the outposts is no exception. I understand the sensitivity; we will try to do this in the least painful way possible, but the unauthorized outposts will be dismantled. Period.
Israel will meet all its obligations with regard to construction in the settlements.
There will be no construction beyond the existing construction line, no expropriation of land for construction, no special economic incentives and no construction of new settlements.
[Annotation: None of these promises were held.]
Israel has clear obligations, too.
It must take steps to ease the suffering of Palestinians and diminish the daily humiliation of life under occupation [...]
Settlement activity is simply inconsistent with President Bush’s two-state vision.
As the president has said, “as progress is made toward peace, settlement activity in the Occupied Territories must end.”
Juli 2001 – Ariel Sharon – Israelischer Premierminister
Only through developing the Golan, expanding the Jewish population, expanding the settlements and bringing in new residents … will we be able to turn the settlement of the Golan to a reality that cannot be reversed
Juni 2001 – Ariel Sharon – Israelischer Premierminister
I don’t think that he [Pres. G.W.Bush] loved it, but this is the Israeli position [not to put a freeze to sttlements].
März 2001 – Israelische Regierung (Ariel Sharon)
The Government will strive to achieve the following national goals: [...]
To strengthen, expand, and promote settlement throughout the country.
September 2000 – Teddy Kollek, ehemaliger Bürgermeister von Jerusalem
We failed in the unification of the city.
Tell Ehud Barak that I support its division.
Juli 1996 – Dan Meridor, israelischer Finanzminister
we have to praise Yitzhak Rabin my he rest in peace and Shimon Peres who during the last four years raised the number of Jews in Judaea and Samaria by 40 percent. During their tenure, thousands of homes were built in Judaea and Samaria and the number of Jews increased from 100.000 to 140.000.
(Cit. from Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, Ed. Philip Mattar, p. 249ff.)
Oktober 1995 – Benjamin Netanjahu, Oppositionsführer während der Regierung von Premier Jitzhak Rabin*
Sie, Herr Premierminister [Rabin], haben kürzlich eine widerwärtige Bemerkung fallen gelassen.
Sie sagten die Bibel sei nicht unser Grundbuch.
Ich sage: Die Bibel ist unser Grundbuch, unsere Vollmacht und unser Eigentumsnachweis.
November 1998 – Ariel Scharon, israelischer Premierminister
Ein jeder muss sich in Bewegung setzen, sputen und so viele Hügelspitzen wie nur möglich an sich reißen um die Siedlungen zu vergrößern, denn alles was wir jetzt erobern, wird in unserem Besitz bleiben. Alles was wir uns nicht nehmen, wird an die anderen abgetreten werden.
Januar 1995 – Shimon Peres, israelischer Außenminister
We announced that we are not going to take new settlements.
We are not going to confiscate land to expand existing settlements or to build new settlements.
And we are not going to invest government money in expanding existing settlements.
Januar 1992 – Yitzhak Schamir, israelischer Ministerpräsident
this construction will continue and no power in the world will prevent this construction.
Mai 1991 – James Baker III., US Außenminister unter George H.W. Bush
[...] nothing has made my job of trying to find Arab and Palestinian partners for Israel more difficult than being greeted by a new settlement every time I arrive.
It substantially weakens our hand in trying to bring about a peace process and creates quite a predicament.
I don’t think that there is any bigger obstacle to peace than the settlement activity that continues not only unabated [but] at an enhanced pace.
Mai 1989 – James Baker III., US Außenminister unter George H.W. Bush
Now is the time to lay aside, once and for all, the unrealistic vision of a greater Israel. …
Stop settlement activity.
Allow schools to reopen. Reach out to the Palestinians as neighbors who deserve political rights.
1989 – Teddy Kollek, Bürgermeister von Jerusalem
Jerusalem will never be divided.
We have not yet succeeded in uniting the city, but we must not speak of splitting it into two municipalities.
[...] it will take 100 years, yes 100 years, to unify this city!
September 1982 – US Präsident Ronald Reagan, angesichts der verstärkten Siedlungsaktivität unter der neuen israelischen Likud-Regierung von Premierminister Menachem Begin:
The Camp David agreement remains the foundation of our policy [...]
The United States will not support the use of any additional land for the purpose of settlements during the transition period.
Further settlement activity is in no way necessary for the security of Israel and only diminishes the confidence of the Arabs that a final outcome can be freely and fairly negotiated.
We will not support annexation or permanent control by Israel [...]
U.N. Resolution 242 remains wholly valid as the foundation stone of America’s Middle East peace effort [...]
It is the United States’ position that, in return for peace, the withdrawal provision of Resolution 242 applies to all fronts, including the West Bank and Gaza.
Well, I’ve covered this [issue of settlements] many times. Our position on settlements in the occupied territory has been that they are illegal, that they are an obstacle to peace.
When Prime Minister Begin was over here and when Foreign Minister Dayan was here, this question arose. And my understanding of their commitment was that no new settlements would be authorized by the government [...]
** Vor dem 20. Zionistischen Kongress in Zürich, 7. Aug. 1937; Quelle: Revisiting the Palestinian exodus of 1948, Benny Morris, in: The War for Palestine, Rogan / Shlaim, Cambridge 2002, S. 43 (#)
- Israelis insist they have US backing to build in East Jerusalem (guardian.co.uk)
- Israel vows to continue East Jerusalem construction, despite row with US – Ha’aretz (news.google.com)
- Israel ‘plans to sell 3000 new homes in Jerusalem’ – AFP (news.google.com)
- Israeli Settlement Freeze Plan On Hold, Says Israeli Official (huffingtonpost.com)
- Israel Settlement Building Booms After Freeze (huffingtonpost.com)
- 5 Nations Summon Israeli Envoys to Protest Settlement Plans (nytimes.com)
- Israeli settlers occupy 5-story house in Palestinian area of East Jerusalem (rt.com)
- Israel says will stick with settlement plan despite condemnation (news.yahoo.com)
- Israel defiant over settlements (bbc.co.uk)
- Westbank: Siedlungen und kein Ende (Transatlantikblog)
- Australia summons Israeli envoy to protest settlement plans – Jerusalem Post (jpost.com)
- Settlers threaten Israel (Haaretz)