(Photo: http://www.hillaryclinton.com /news/officialheadshot/)
[Diese Biografie ist aus der englischen Wikipedia übernommen. Die englischen Seiten sind i.d.R. weitaus akkurater und ausgeglichener als die deutschen]
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton
(born October 26, 1947) is the junior United States Senator from New York, and a leading candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 2008 presidential election. She is married to Bill Clinton—the 42nd President of the United States—and was the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A native of Illinois, Hillary Rodham attracted national attention in 1969 when she delivered an address as the first student to speak at commencement exercises for Wellesley College. She began her career as a lawyer after graduating from Yale Law School in 1973, moving to Arkansas and marrying Bill Clinton in 1975, following her career as a Congressional legal counsel; she was named the first female partner at Rose Law Firm in 1979 and was listed as one of the one hundred most influential lawyers in America in 1988 and 1991. She was the First Lady of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992, was active in a number of organizations concerned with the welfare of children, and was on the board of Wal-Mart and several other corporate boards.
As First Lady of the United States, she took a prominent position in policy matters. Her major initiative, the Clinton health care plan, failed to gain approval by the U.S. Congress in 1994, but in 1997 she helped establish the State Children’s Health Insurance Program and the Adoption and Safe Families Act. She became the only First Lady to be subpoenaed, testifying before a federal grand jury as a consequence of the Whitewater controversy in 1996. She was never charged with any wrongdoing in this or several other investigations during her husband’s administration. The state of her marriage to Bill Clinton was the subject of considerable public discussion following the Lewinsky scandal in 1998.
After moving to New York, Clinton was elected as senator for New York State in 2000; this was the first time an American First Lady ran for public office and she is the first female senator from that state. In the Senate, she initially supported the George W. Bush administration on some foreign policy issues, which included voting for the Iraq War Resolution. She has subsequently opposed the administration on its conduct of the Iraq War and has opposed it on most domestic issues. She was re-elected by a wide margin in 2006. Clinton is the first woman in U.S. history to win a presidential party primary, and as the 2008 race takes place, she is in a contest with Senator Barack Obama for the nomination of the Democratic Party.
Hillary Diane Rodham was born at Edgewater Hospital in Chicago, Illinois, and was raised in a United Methodist family, first in Chicago, and then, from the age of three, in suburban Park Ridge, Illinois, which is also located in Cook County. Her father, Hugh Ellsworth Rodham, was a son of Welsh and English immigrants and operated a small but successful business in the textile industry. Her mother, Dorothy Emma Howell, of English, Scottish, French Canadian, and Welsh descent, was a homemaker. She has two younger brothers, Hugh and Tony.
As a child, Hillary Rodham was involved in many activities at church and at her public school in Park Ridge. She participated in tennis and other sports and earned awards as a Brownie and Girl Scout. She attended Maine East High School, where she participated in student council, the debating team and the National Honor Society. For her senior year she was redistricted to Maine South High School, where she was a National Merit Finalist and graduated in 1965. Her parents encouraged her to pursue the career of her choice.
Raised in a politically conservative household, at age thirteen she helped canvass South Side Chicago following the very close 1960 U.S. presidential election, finding evidence of electoral fraud against Republican candidate Richard Nixon, and volunteered for Republican candidate Barry Goldwater in the U.S. presidential election of 1964. Her early political development was shaped most strongly by her energizing high school history teacher, who got her to read Goldwater’s classic The Conscience of a Conservative and who was, like her father, a fervent anti-communist, and by her Methodist youth minister, like her mother concerned with issues of social justice; with the minister she saw and met civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. in Chicago in 1962.
In 1965, Rodham enrolled in Wellesley College, where she majored in political science. She served as president of the Rockefeller Republican-oriented Wellesley Young Republicans organization during her freshman year and with them supported the elections of John Lindsay and Edward Brooke. However, due to her evolving views regarding the American Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War, she stepped down from that position; she characterized her own nature as that of “a mind conservative and a heart liberal.” Active in campus affairs, she sought to work for change within the system, rather than take then-popular radical actions against it. In her junior year, Rodham was affected by the death of Martin Luther King, Jr., and became a supporter of the anti-war presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy. Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Wellesley’s black students for moderate changes, such as recruiting more black students and faculty. In early 1968 she was elected president of the Wellesley College Government Association and served through early 1969; she was instrumental in keeping Wellesley from being embroiled by the student disruptions common to other colleges at the time. A number of her fellow students thought at the time she might someday become the first woman President of the United States. She attended the “Wellesley in Washington” summer program at the urging of Professor Alan Schechter, who assigned Rodham to intern at the House Republican Conference so she could better understand her changing political views. Rodham was invited by Representative Charles Goodell, a moderate New York Republican, to help Governor Nelson Rockefeller’s late-entry campaign for the Republican nomination. Rodham attended the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami, where she decided to leave the Republican Party for good; she was upset over how Richard Nixon‘s campaign had portrayed Rockefeller and what Rodham perceived as the “veiled” racist messages of the convention.
Rodham returned to Wellesley, and wrote her senior thesis about the tactics of radical community organizer Saul Alinsky under Professor Schechter (which, years later while she was First Lady, was suppressed at the request of the White House and became the subject of speculation as to its contents). In 1969, Rodham graduated with departmental honors in political science. Stemming from the demands of some students, she became the first student in Wellesley College history to deliver their commencement address. Her speech received a standing ovation lasting seven minutes. She was featured in an article published in Life magazine, due to the response to a part of her speech that criticized Senator Edward Brooke, who had spoken before her at the commencement; she also appeared on Irv Kupcinet‘s nationally-syndicated television talk show as well as in Illinois and New England newspapers. That summer, she worked her way across Alaska, washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and sliming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez (which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhealthy conditions).
Rodham then entered Yale Law School, where she served on the Board of Editors of the Yale Review of Law and Social Action. During her second year, she worked at the Yale Child Study Center, learning about new research on early childhood brain development and working as a research assistant on the seminal work, Beyond the Best Interests of the Child (1973). She also took on cases of child abuse at Yale-New Haven Hospital, and volunteered at New Haven Legal Services to provide free advice for the poor. In the summer of 1970, she was awarded a grant to work at Marian Wright Edelman‘s Washington Research Project, where she was assigned to Senator Walter Mondale‘s Subcommittee on Migratory Labor, researching migrant workers‘ problems in housing, sanitation, health and education; Edelman would become a significant mentor to her.
In the late spring of 1971, she began dating Bill Clinton, who was also a law student at Yale. That summer, she interned on child custody cases at the Oakland, California, law firm of Treuhaft, Walker and Burnstein, which was well-known for its support of constitutional rights, civil liberties, and radical causes; two of its four partners were current or former communist party members. Clinton canceled his original summer plans in order to live with her in an apartment in Berkeley, California, later writing, “I told her I’d have the rest of my life for my work and my ambition, but I loved her and I wanted to see if it could work out for us.” The romance did develop, and the couple continued living together in New Haven when they returned to law school. The following summer, Rodham and Clinton campaigned in Texas for unsuccessful 1972 Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern. She received a Juris Doctor degree from Yale in 1973, having spent an extra year there in order to be with Clinton. Clinton first proposed marriage to her following graduation, but she declined at the time. She began a year of post-graduate study on children and medicine at the Yale Child Study Center. Her first scholarly article, “Children Under the Law”, was published in the Harvard Educational Review in late 1973. Discussing the new children’s rights movement, it stated that “child citizens” were “powerless individuals” and argued that children should not be considered equally incompetent from birth to attaining legal age, but rather courts should presume competence except when there is evidence otherwise, on a case-by-case basis. The article became frequently cited in the field.
Marriage and family, law career and First Lady of Arkansas
During her post-graduate study, Rodham served as staff attorney for Edelman’s newly founded Children’s Defense Fund in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and as a consultant to the Carnegie Council on Children. During 1974 she was a member of the impeachment inquiry staff in Washington, D.C., advising the House Committee on the Judiciary during the Watergate scandal. Under the guidance of Chief Counsel John Doar and senior member Bernard Nussbaum, Rodham helped research procedures of impeachment and the historical grounds and standards for impeachment. The committee’s work culminated in the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974.
By then, Rodham was viewed as someone with a bright political future; Democratic political organizer and consultant Betsey Wright had moved from Texas to Washington the previous year to help guide her career; Wright thought Rodham had the potential to one day become a senator or president. Meanwhile, Clinton had repeatedly asked her to marry him, and she had continued to demur. However, helped by her having passed the Arkansas bar exam but having failed the District of Columbia bar exam, Rodham came to a key decision. As she later wrote, “I chose to follow my heart instead of my head.” She thus followed Bill Clinton to Arkansas, rather than staying in Washington where career prospects were best. Clinton was at the time teaching law and running for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in his home state. In August 1974, she moved to Fayetteville, Arkansas, and became one of two female faculty members in the School of Law at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, where Bill Clinton also taught. She still harbored doubts about marriage, concerned that her separate identity would be lost and her accomplishments would be viewed in the light of someone else’s accomplishments.
Early Arkansas years
The couple bought a house in Fayetteville in the summer of 1975, and she finally agreed to marry him. Hillary Rodham and Bill Clinton were married on October 11, 1975, in a Methodist ceremony in their living room. She kept her name as Hillary Rodham, later writing that she had done so to keep their professional lives separate and avoid seeming conflicts of interest, although it upset both their mothers. Bill Clinton had lost the Congressional race in 1974, but in November 1976 was elected Arkansas Attorney General. This required the couple to move to the state capital of Little Rock. Rodham joined the venerable Rose Law Firm, a bastion of Arkansan political and economic influence, in February 1977, specializing in patent infringement and intellectual property law, while also working pro bono in child advocacy; she rarely performed litigation work in court.
Rodham maintained her interest in children’s law and family policy, publishing the scholarly articles “Children’s Policies: Abandonment and Neglect” in 1977 and “Children’s Rights: A Legal Perspective” in 1979. The latter continued her argument that legal competence of children depended upon their age and other circumstances, and that in cases of serious medical rights judicial intervention is sometimes warranted. An American Bar Association chair later said, “Her articles were important, not because they were radically new but because they helped formulate something that had been inchoate.” Historian Garry Wills would later term her “one of the more important scholar-activists of the last two decades”, while conservatives said her theories would usurp traditional parental authority, allow children to file frivolous lawsuits against their parents, and considered her work part of legal “crit” theory run amok.
Rodham co-founded the Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, a state-level alliance with the Children’s Defense Fund, in 1977. In late 1977, President Jimmy Carter (for whom Rodham had done 1976 campaign coordination work in Indiana) appointed her to the board of directors of the Legal Services Corporation, and she served in that capacity from 1978 until the end of 1981. For much of that time she served as the chair of that board, the first woman to do so. During her time as chair, funding for the Corporation was expanded from $90 million to $300 million, and she successfully battled against President Ronald Reagan‘s initial attempts to reduce the funding and change the nature of the organization.
Following the November 1978 election of her husband as Governor of Arkansas, Rodham became First Lady of Arkansas in January 1979, her title for a total of twelve years (1979–1981, 1983–1992). Clinton appointed her chair of the Rural Health Advisory Committee the same year, where she successfully obtained federal funds to expand medical facilities in Arkansas’ poorest areas without affecting doctors’ fees.
In 1979, she became the first woman to be made a full partner of Rose Law Firm. From 1978 until they entered the White House, she had a higher salary than her husband. During 1978 and 1979, while looking to supplement their income, Rodham made a spectacular profit from trading cattle futures contracts; her initial $1,000 investment generated nearly $100,000 when she stopped trading after ten months. The couple also began their ill-fated investment in the Whitewater Development Corporation real estate venture with Jim and Susan McDougal at this time.
Later Arkansas years
Hillary Rodham Clinton, 1992
Bill Clinton returned to the Governor’s office two years later by winning the election of 1982. During her husband’s campaign, Rodham began to use the name Hillary Clinton, or sometimes “Mrs. Bill Clinton”, in order to have greater appeal to Arkansas voters; she also took a leave of absence from Rose Law in order to campaign for him full-time. As First Lady of Arkansas, Hillary Clinton chaired the Arkansas Educational Standards Committee from 1982 to 1992, where she sought to bring about reform in the state’s court-sanctioned public education system. In one of the most important initiatives of the entire Clinton governorship, she fought a prolonged but ultimately successful battle against the Arkansas Education Association to put mandatory teacher testing as well as state standards for curriculum and classroom size in place. She introduced Arkansas’ Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youth in 1985, a program that helps parents work with their children in preschool preparedness and literacy. She was named Arkansas Woman of the Year in 1983 and Arkansas Mother of the Year in 1984.
Clinton continued to practice law with the Rose Law Firm while she was First Lady of Arkansas. She earned less than all the other partners, due to fewer hours being billed, but still made more than $200,000 in her final year there. She continued to rarely do trial work, but was considered a “rainmaker” at the firm for bringing in clients, partly due to the prestige she lent the firm and to her corporate board connections. She was also very influential in the appointment of state judges. Bill Clinton’s Republican opponent in his 1986 gubernatorial re-election campaign accused the Clintons of conflict of interest, because Rose Law did state business; the Clintons deflected the charge by saying that state fees were walled off by the firm before her profits were calculated. From 1987 to 1991 she chaired the American Bar Association‘s Commission on Women in the Profession, which addressed gender bias in the law profession and induced the association to adopt measures to combat it. She was twice named by the National Law Journal as one of the 100 most influential lawyers in America, in 1988 and in 1991. When Bill Clinton thought about not running again for governor in 1990, Hillary Clinton considered running herself, but private polls were unfavorable and in the end he ran and was re-elected for the final time.
Clinton served on the boards of the Arkansas Children’s Hospital Legal Services (1988–1992) and the Children’s Defense Fund (as chair, 1986–1992). In addition to her positions with non-profit organizations, she also held positions on the corporate board of directors of TCBY (1985–1992), Wal-Mart Stores (1986–1992) and Lafarge (1990–1992). TCBY and Wal-Mart were Arkansas-based companies that were also clients of Rose Law. Clinton was the first female member on Wal-Mart’s board, added when chairman Sam Walton was pressured to name one; once there, she pushed successfully for the chain to adopt more environmentally-friendly practices, pushed largely unsuccessfully for more women to be added to the company’s management, and was silent about the company’s famously anti-labor union practices.
First Lady of the United States
A different kind of First Lady
After her husband became a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination of 1992, Hillary Clinton received popular national attention for the first time. Before the New Hampshire primary, tabloid publications printed claims that Bill Clinton had had an extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers, an Arkansas lounge singer. In response, the Clintons appeared together on 60 Minutes, during which Bill Clinton denied the affair but acknowledged he had caused “pain” in their marriage. (Years later, he would admit that the Flowers affair had happened, but to lesser extent than she claimed.) Hillary Clinton made culturally dismissive remarks about Tammy Wynette and baking cookies and having teas during the campaign that were ill-considered by her own admission. Bill Clinton said that electing him would get “two for the price of one” or “buy one, get one free”, referring to the prominent role his wife would assume. Beginning with Daniel Wattenberg‘s August 1992 The American Spectator article “The Lady Macbeth of Little Rock”, Hillary Clinton’s own past ideological and ethical record came under conservative attack.
When Bill Clinton took office as president in January 1993, Hillary Rodham Clinton became the First Lady of the United States, and announced that she would be using that form of her name. She was the first First Lady to hold a post-graduate degree and to have her own professional career up to the time of entering the White House. She was also the first to take up an office in the West Wing of the White House: the First Lady usually stays in the East Wing. She is regarded as the most openly empowered presidential wife in American history, save for Eleanor Roosevelt.
Some critics called it inappropriate for the First Lady to play a central role in matters of public policy. Supporters pointed out that Clinton’s role in policy was no different from that of other White House advisors and that voters were well aware that she would play an active role in her husband’s Presidency. Bill Clinton’s campaign promise of “two for the price of one” led opponents to refer derisively to the Clintons as “co-presidents”, or sometimes “Billary”. The pressures of conflicting ideas about the role of a First Lady were enough to send Clinton into “imaginary discussions” with the also-politically-active Eleanor Roosevelt; from the time she came to Washington, she also found refuge in a prayer group of The Fellowship that featured many wives of conservative Washington figures. Triggered in part by the death of her father in April 1993, she publicly sought to find a synthesis of Methodist teachings, liberal religious political philosophy, and Tikkun editor Michael Lerner‘s “politics of meaning” to overcome what she saw as America’s “sleeping sickness of the soul” and that would lead to a willingness “to remold society by redefining what it means to be a human being in the twentieth century, moving into a new millennium.” Other segments of the public focused on her appearance, which had evolved over time from inattention to fashion during her days in Arkansas, to a popular site in the early days of the World Wide Web devoted to showing her many different, and much analyzed, hairstyles as First Lady, to an appearance on the cover of Vogue magazine in 1998.
Health care and other policy initiatives
In 1993, Bill Clinton appointed Hillary Clinton to head and be the chairwoman of the Task Force on National Health Care Reform, hoping to replicate the success she had in leading the effort for Arkansas education reform. The recommendation of the task force became known as the Clinton health care plan, a comprehensive proposal that would require employers to provide health coverage to their employees through individual health maintenance organizations. The plan was quickly derided as “Hillarycare” by its opponents; some protesters against it became vitriolic, and during a July 1994 bus tour to rally support for the plan, she was forced to wear a bulletproof vest at times. The plan did not receive enough support for a floor vote in either the House or the Senate, although both chambers were controlled by Democrats, and proposal was abandoned in September of 1994. Clinton later acknowledged in her book, Living History, that her political inexperience partly contributed to the defeat, but mentioned that many other factors were also responsible. The First Lady’s approval ratings, which had generally been in the high-50s percent range during her first year, fell to 44 percent in April 1994 and 35 percent by September 1994. Republicans made the Clinton health care plan a major campaign issue of the 1994 midterm elections, which saw a net Republican gain of fifty-three seats in the House election and seven in the Senate election, winning control of both; many analysts and pollsters found the plan to be a major factor in the Democrats’ defeat, especially among independent voters. Opponents of universal health care would continue to use “Hillarycare” as a pejorative label for similar plans by others.
Along with Senator Ted Kennedy, she was the major force behind the State Children’s Health Insurance Program in 1997, a federal effort that provided state support for children whose parents were unable to provide them with health coverage. She promoted nationwide immunization against childhood illnesses and encouraged older women to seek a mammogram to detect breast cancer, with coverage provided by Medicare. She successfully sought to increase research funding for prostate cancer and childhood asthma at the National Institutes of Health. The First Lady worked to investigate reports of an illness that affected veterans of the Gulf War, which became known as the Gulf War syndrome. Together with Attorney General Janet Reno, Clinton helped create the Office on Violence Against Women at the Department of Justice. In 1997, she initiated and shepherded the Adoption and Safe Families Act, which she regarded as her greatest accomplishment as First Lady. As First Lady, Clinton hosted numerous White House Conferences, including ones on Child Care (1997), Early Childhood Development and Learning (1997), and Children and Adolescents (2000), and the first-ever White House Conferences on Teenagers (2000) and Philanthropy (1999).
Hillary Clinton traveled to 79 countries during this time, breaking the mark for most-travelled First Lady held by Pat Nixon. In a September 1995 speech before the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, Clinton argued very forcefully against practices that abused women around the world and in People’s Republic of China itself, declaring “that it is no longer acceptable to discuss women’s rights as separate from human rights” and resisting Chinese pressure to soften her remarks. She was one of the most prominent international figures at the time to speak out against the treatment of Afghan women by the Islamist fundamentalist Taliban that had seized control of Afghanistan. She helped create Vital Voices, an international initiative sponsored by the United States to promote the participation of women in the political processes of their countries.
Whitewater and other investigations
The Whitewater controversy was the focus of media attention from the publication of a New York Times report during the 1992 presidential campaign, and throughout her time as First Lady. The Clintons had lost their late-1970s investment in the Whitewater Development Corporation; at the same time, their partners in that investment, Jim and Susan McDougal, operated Madison Guaranty, a savings and loan institution that retained the legal services of Rose Law Firm and may have been improperly subsidizing Whitewater losses. Madison Guaranty later failed, and Clinton’s work at Rose was scrutinized for a possible conflict of interest in representing the bank before state regulators that her husband had appointed; she claimed she had done minimal work for the bank. Independent counsels Robert Fiske and Kenneth Starr subpoenaed Clinton’s legal billing records; she claimed to be unable to produce these records. The records were found in the First Lady’s White House book room after a two-year search, and delivered to investigators in early 1996. The delayed appearance of the records sparked intense interest and another investigation about how they surfaced and where they had been; Clinton attributed the problem to disorganization that resulted from their move from the Arkansas Governor’s Mansion and the effects of a White House renovation. After the discovery of the records, on January 26, 1996, Clinton made history by becoming the first First Lady to be subpoenaed to testify before a Federal grand jury. After several Independent Counsels investigated, a final report was issued in 2000 which stated that there was insufficient evidence that either Clinton had engaged in criminal wrongdoing.
Other investigations took place during Hillary Clinton’s time as First Lady. Scrutiny of the May 1993 firings of the White House Travel Office employees, an affair that became known as “Travelgate“, began with charges that the White House had used alleged financial improprieties in the Travel Office operation as an excuse to replace the office staff and give the White House travel business to Arkansas friends of theirs. Over the years the investigation focused more on whether Hillary Clinton had orchestrated the firings and whether the statements she made to investigating authorities regarding her role in the firings were true. The 2000 final Independent Counsel report found that there was substantial evidence that she was involved in the firings and that she had made “factually false” statements, but that there was insufficient evidence to prosecute her. Following deputy White House counsel Vince Foster‘s July 1993 suicide, allegations were made that Hillary Clinton had ordered the removal of potentially damaging files (related to Whitewater or other matters) from Foster’s office on the night of his death. Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr investigated this, and by 1999 Starr was reported to be holding the investigation open, despite his staff having told him there was no case to be made. When Starr’s successor Robert Ray issued his final Whitewater reports in 2000, no claims were made against Hillary Clinton regarding this. In March 1994 newspaper reports revealed her spectacular profits from cattle futures trading in 1978–1979; allegations were made of conflict of interest and disguised bribery, and several individuals analyzed her trading records, but no official investigation was made and she was never charged with any wrongdoing. An outgrowth of the Travelgate investigation was the June 1996 discovery of improper White House access to hundreds of FBI background reports on former Republican White House employees, an affair that some called “Filegate“; accusations were made that Hillary Clinton had requested these files and that she had recommended hiring an unqualified individual to head the White House Security Office. The 2000 final Independent Counsel report found no substantial or credible evidence that Hillary Clinton had any role or showed any misconduct in the matter.
In 1998, the Clintons’ relationship became the subject of much speculation and gossip when it was revealed that the President had had extramarital sexual activities with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. Events surrounding the Lewinsky scandal eventually led to the impeachment of Bill Clinton. When the allegations against her husband were first made public, Hillary Clinton stated that they were the result of a “vast right-wing conspiracy“, characterizing the Lewinsky charges as the latest in a long, organized, collaborative series of charges by Clinton political enemies, rather than any wrongdoing by her husband. She later said that she had been misled by her husband’s initial claims that no affair had taken place. After the evidence of President Clinton’s encounters with Lewinsky became incontrovertible and he admitted to her his unfaithful behavior, she issued a public statement reaffirming her commitment to their marriage, but privately was reported to be furious at him and was unsure if she wanted to stay in the marriage.
There was a mix of public reactions to Hillary Clinton after this: some women admired her strength and poise in private matters made public, some sympathized with her as a victim of her husband’s insensitive behavior, others criticized her as being an enabler to her husband’s indiscretions, while still others accused her of cynically staying in a failed marriage as a way of keeping or even fostering her own political influence. Overall, her public approval ratings in the wake of the revelations shot upward to 71 percent, the highest they had ever been. In her 2003 memoir, she would attribute her decision to stay married to love: “No one understands me better and no one can make me laugh the way Bill does. Even after all these years, he is still the most interesting, energizing and fully alive person I have ever met.”
Clinton initiated and was Founding Chair of the Save America’s Treasures program, a national effort that matched federal funds to private donations for the purpose of preserving and restoring historic items and sites, including the flag that inspired the Star Spangled Banner and the First Ladies Historic Site in Canton, Ohio. She was head of the White House Millennium Council, and initiated the Millennium Project with monthly lectures that discuss futures studies, one of which became the first live simultaneous webcast from the White House. Clinton also created the first Sculpture Garden there, which displayed large contemporary American works of art loaned from museums in the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden.
In the White House, Clinton placed donated handicrafts of contemporary American artisans, such as pottery and glassware, on rotating display in the state rooms. She oversaw the restoration of the Blue Room to be historically authentic to the period of James Monroe, the redecoration of the Treaty Room into the presidential study along nineteenth century lines, and the redecoration of the Map Room to how it looked during World War II. Clinton hosted many large-scale events at the White House, such as a St. Patrick’s Day reception, a state dinner for visiting Chinese dignitaries, a contemporary music concert that raised funds for music education in public schools, a New Year’s Eve celebration at the turn of the twenty-first century, and a state dinner honoring the bicentennial of the White House in November of 2000.
Senate Election 2000
The long-serving United States Senator from New York, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, announced his retirement in November 1998. Several prominent Democratic figures, including Representative Charles Rangel of New York, urged Clinton to run for Moynihan’s open seat in the United States Senate election of 2000. When she decided to run, Clinton and her husband purchased a home in Chappaqua, New York, north of New York City in September 1999. She became the first First Lady of the United States to be a candidate for elected office. At first, Clinton was expected to face Rudy Giuliani, the Mayor of New York City, as her Republican opponent in the election. However, Giuliani withdrew from the race in May 2000 after being diagnosed with prostate cancer and having developments in his personal life become very public, and Clinton instead faced Rick Lazio, a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives representing New York’s 2nd congressional district. Throughout the campaign and during debates, Clinton was accused of carpetbagging by her opponents, as she had never resided in New York nor participated in the state’s politics prior to this race. Clinton began her campaign by visiting every county in the state, in a “listening tour” of small-group settings. During the campaign, she devoted considerable time in traditionally Republican Upstate New York regions. Clinton vowed to improve the economic situation in those areas, promising to deliver 200,000 jobs to the state over her term. Her plan included specific tax credits to reward job creation and encourage business investment, especially in the high-tech sector. She called for personal tax cuts for college tuition and long-term care.
The contest drew national attention and both candidates were well-funded. Clinton secured a broad base of support, including endorsements from conservation groups and organized labor, but not the New York City police and firefighters’ unions. By the date of the election, the campaigns of Clinton and Lazio, along with Giuliani’s initial effort, had spent a record combined $90 million. Clinton won the election on November 7, 2000, with 55 percent of the vote to Lazio’s 43 percent. She was sworn in as United States Senator on January 3, 2001.
United States Senator
Upon entering the United States Senate, Clinton maintained a low public profile, built relationships with senators from both parties  and forged alliances with religiously-inclined senators by becoming a regular participant in the Senate Prayer Breakfast.
Clinton has served on five Senate committees: Committee on Budget (2001–2002), Committee on Armed Services (since 2003), Committee on Environment and Public Works (since 2001), Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (since 2001) and Special Committee on Aging. She is also a Commissioner of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (since 2001).
Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Clinton sought to obtain funding for the recovery efforts in New York City and security improvements in her state. Working with New York’s senior senator, Charles Schumer, she was instrumental in quickly securing $21 billion in funding for the World Trade Center site’s redevelopment. She subsequently took a leading role in investigating the health issues faced by 9/11 first responders. Clinton voted for the USA Patriot Act in October 2001. In 2005, when the act was up for renewal, she worked to address some of the civil liberties concerns with it, before voting in favor of a compromise renewed act in March 2006 that gained large majority support.
Clinton strongly supported the 2001 U.S. military action in Afghanistan, saying it was a chance to combat terrorism while improving the lives of Afghan women who suffered under the Taliban government. Clinton voted in favor of the October 2002 Iraq War Resolution, which authorized United States President George W. Bush to use military force against Iraq, should such action be required to enforce a United Nations Security Council Resolution after pursuing with diplomatic efforts. (However, Clinton voted against the Levin Amendment to the Resolution, which would have required the President to conduct vigorous diplomacy at the U.N., and would have also required a separate Congressional authorization to unilaterally invade Iraq. She did vote for the Byrd Amendment to the Resolution, which would have limited the Congressional authorization to one year increments, but the only mechanism necessary for the President to renew his mandate without any Congressional oversight was to claim that the Iraq War was vital to national security each year the authorization required renewal.)
After the Iraq War began, Clinton made trips to both Iraq and Afghanistan to visit American troops stationed there, such as the 10th Mountain Division based in Fort Drum, New York. On a visit to Iraq in February 2005, Clinton noted that the insurgency had failed to disrupt the democratic elections held earlier, and that parts of the country were functioning well. Noting that war deployments were draining regular and reserve forces, she co-introduced legislation to increase the size of the regular United States Army by 80,000 soldiers to ease the strain. In late 2005, Clinton said that while immediate withdrawal from Iraq would be a mistake, Bush’s pledge to stay “until the job is done” was also misguided, as it gave Iraqis “an open-ended invitation not to take care of themselves.” She criticized the administration for making poor decisions in the war, but said it was more important to solve the problems in Iraq. Her stance caused frustration among those in the Democratic party who favored immediate withdrawal. Clinton supported retaining and improving health benefits for veterans, and lobbied against the closure of several military bases.
Senator Clinton voted against the tax cuts introduced by President Bush, including the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003, saying it was fiscally irresponsible to reopen the budget deficit.
Clinton voted in 2005 against the confirmation of John Roberts as Chief Justice of the United States, and in 2006 against the nomination of Samuel Alito to the United States Supreme Court; both were confirmed. In 2005, Clinton called for the Federal Trade Commission to investigate how hidden sex scenes showed up in the controversial video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Along with Senators Joe Lieberman and Evan Bayh, she introduced the Family Entertainment Protection Act, intended to protect children from inappropriate content found in video games. In July 2004 and June 2006, Clinton voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment that sought to prohibit same-sex marriage. The proposed constitutional amendment fell well short of passage on both occasions.
Looking to establish a “progressive infrastructure” to rival that of American conservatism, Clinton played a formative role in conversations that led to the 2003 founding of former Clinton administration chief of staff John Podesta‘s Center for American Progress; shared aides with Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, founded in 2003; advised and nurtured the Clintons’ former antagonist David Brock‘s Media Matters for America, created in 2004; and following the 2004 Senate elections, successfully pushed new Democratic Senate leader Harry Reid to create a Senate war room to handle daily political messaging.
Reelection campaign of 2006
In November 2004, Clinton announced that she would seek a second term in the United States Senate. The early frontrunner for the Republican nomination, Westchester County District Attorney Jeanine Pirro, withdrew from the contest after several months of poor campaign performance. Clinton easily won the Democratic nomination over opposition from anti-war activist Jonathan Tasini. Clinton’s eventual opponents in the general election were Republican candidate John Spencer, a former mayor of Yonkers, along with several third-party candidates. Throughout the campaign, Clinton consistently led Spencer in the polls by wide margins. She won the election on 7 November with 67 percent of the vote to Spencer’s 31 percent, carrying all but four of New York’s sixty-two counties. Clinton spent $36 million towards her reelection, more than any other candidate for Senate in the 2006 elections. She was criticized by some Democrats for spending too much in a one-sided contest, while some supporters were concerned she did not leave more funds for a potential presidential bid in 2008. In the following months she transferred $10 million of her Senate funds towards her now-official presidential campaign.
Clinton opposed the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 and supported a February 2007 non-binding Senate resolution against it, which failed to gain cloture. In March 2007 she voted in favor of a war spending bill that required President Bush to begin withdrawing troops from Iraq within a certain deadline; it passed almost completely along party lines but was subsequently vetoed by President Bush. In May 2007 a compromise war funding bill that removed withdrawal deadlines but tied funding to progress benchmarks for the Iraqi government passed the Senate by a vote of 80-14 and would be signed by Bush; Clinton was one of those who voted against it. Clinton responded to General David Petraeus‘s September 2007 Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq by saying, “I think that the reports that you provide to us really require a willing suspension of disbelief.” In September 2007 she voted in favor of a Senate resolution calling on the State Department to label the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps “a foreign terrorist organization”, which passed 76-22.
In March 2007, in response to the dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy, Clinton called on Attorney General Alberto Gonzales to resign, and launched an Internet campaign to gain petition signatures towards this end. In May and June 2007, regarding the high-profile, hotly debated comprehensive immigration reform bill known as the Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007, Clinton cast a number of votes in support of the bill, which eventually failed to gain cloture.
Clinton had been mentioned as a potential candidate for United States President since at least October 2002. She has been ranked among the world’s most powerful people by Forbes magazine and Time magazine’s Time 100. On January 20, 2007, Clinton announced on her Web site the formation of a presidential exploratory committee, with the intention to become a candidate for president in the United States presidential election of 2008. In her announcement, she stated, “I’m in. And I’m in to win.” No woman has ever been nominated by a major party for President of the United States.
Clinton led the field of candidates competing for the Democratic nomination in opinion polls for the election throughout the first half of 2007. Most polls placed Senator Barack Obama of Illinois and former Senator John Edwards of North Carolina as Clinton’s closest competitors in the early caucus and primary election states. Clinton set records for early fundraising, which Obama then topped in the following months before Clinton later regained the money lead;[dead link] but Clinton generally maintained her lead in the polls.[dead link]
In April 2007, the Clintons liquidated a blind trust that had been established when Bill became president in 1993, in order to avoid the possibility of ethical conflicts or political embarrassments in the trust as Hillary Clinton undertook her presidential race; later disclosure statements revealed that the couple’s worth was now upwards of $50 million. In late August 2007, a major contributor to, and “bundler” for, Clinton’s campaign, called a “HillRaiser“, Norman Hsu, was revealed to be a 15-years-long fugitive in an investment fraud case. He was also suspected of having broken campaign finance law regarding his bundling collections. The Clinton campaign first said it would donate to charity the $23,000 that Hsu personally contributed to her, then said it would refund to 260 donors the full $850,000 in bundled donations raised by Hsu. Hsu was subsequently indicted on new investment fraud charges.
By September 2007, opinion polling in the first six states holding Democratic primaries or caucuses showed that Clinton was leading in all of them, with the races being closest in Iowa and South Carolina. By October 2007, national polls had Clinton far ahead of any Democratic competitor. At the end of October, Clinton suffered what writers for The Washington Post, ABC News, The Politico, and other outlets characterized as a rare poor debate performance against Obama, Edwards, and her other opponents. Subsequently, the race tightened considerably, especially in the early caucus and primary states of Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina, with Clinton losing her lead in some polls by December.
In the first vote of 2008, she placed third with 29.45 percent of the state delegate selections in the January 3, 2008 Iowa Democratic caucus to Obama’s 37.58 percent and Edwards’ 29.75 percent. Obama led polls in New Hampshire and gained ground in national polling in the next few days, with a double digit victory predicted by several highly publicized polls for the New Hampshire primary and all major polls predicting an Obama victory, with an average of 8 point margin. However, Clinton gained a surprise win in the New Hampshire primary on January 8, defeating Obama by 39 percent to 37 percent, and in the process becoming the first woman to win a presidential party primary in United States history. Explanations for her comeback varied but often centered on her being seen more sympathetically, especially by women, after her eyes welled with tears and her voice broke while responding to a voter’s question the day before the election. The nature of the contest fractured in the next few days, when several remarks by Bill Clinton and other surrogates, and one remark by Hillary Clinton concerning Martin Luther King, Jr. and Lyndon B. Johnson, were perceived by many African American voters and media commentators as, accidentally or intentionally, limiting Obama as a racially-oriented candidate or otherwise denying the post-racial significance and accomplishments of his campaign. Despite attempts by both Hillary Clinton and Obama to downplay the issue, Democratic voting became more polarized as a result, with Clinton losing much of her support among African Americans. After Clinton won the county delegates vote 51–45 percent in the January 19 Nevada caucuses, she lost by a huge 55–27 percent margin to Obama in the January 26 South Carolina primary, setting up, with Edwards soon dropping out, an intense two-person contest for the twenty-two February 5 Super Duper Tuesday states. Bill Clinton had made more statements attracting criticism for their perceived racial implications late in the South Carolina campaign, and by now his role was seen as damaging enough to her that a wave of supporters within and without the campaign said the former President “needs to stop.” On Super Tuesday, Clinton won the largest states, such as California and New York, while Obama won more states; the two gained a nearly equal number of estimated delegates and a nearly equal share of the total popular vote, in what one set of observers termed an “amazing tie”. Obama then won the next twelve caucuses and primaries, often by large margins, and took the overall delegate lead from Clinton. On March 4, Clinton broke the string of losses with wins in the Rhode Island primary, Ohio primary, and primary portion of the Texas primary and caucuses.
Cultural and political image
Observers in the popular media have consistently characterized Hillary Clinton as a polarizing figure in American politics, although some have argued otherwise. The term polarizing comes from political science, where it is a measure of the electorate’s response to a political figure or position; it is not an assessment of, or a value judgment upon, a political figure. It does not mean that a political figure is necessarily unelectable. Political figures can receive a polarized response through actions of their own, through historical trends or accidents, or due to external forces such as media bias. Political scientists principally measure polarization in two ways. One is popular polarization, which happens when opinions diverge towards poles of distribution or intensity. In the popular media, Clinton being “polarizing” usually refers to this, as reflected by public opinion poll reporting on the percentages of the electorate who view her favorably versus unfavorably. These typically show large percentages in both camps, few undecided, and none who do not know who she is. As University of Wisconsin political science professor Charles Franklin notes, “This sharp split is … one of the more widely remarked aspects of Sen. Clinton’s public image;” other first ladies of her era did not exhibit the same split. McGill University professor of history Gil Troy echoed this difference in titling his biography of her, Hillary Rodham Clinton: Polarizing First Lady, and in writing that “Hillary Clinton has alternately fascinated, bedeviled, bewitched, and appalled Americans.” Political scientists also use a more refined approach to measure popular polarization, the American National Election Studies‘ “feeling thermometer” polls, which measure the degree of opinion about a political figure. James Madison University political science professor Valerie Sulfaro’s 2007 study found that such ratings during Clinton’s First Lady years confirm the “conventional wisdom that Hillary Clinton is a polarizing figure”, with the added insight that “affect towards Mrs. Clinton as first lady tended to be very positive or very negative, with a fairly constant one fourth of respondents feeling ambivalent or neutral.”
The other form that political scientists examine is partisan polarization, which happens when support for a political figure or position differentiates itself along party lines. Northern Illinois University political science professor Barbara Burrell’s 2000 study found that Clinton’s Gallup poll favorability numbers broke sharply along partisan lines throughout her time as First Lady, with 70 to 90 percent of Democrats typically viewing her favorably while 20 to 40 percent of Republicans did. This fairly consistent 50-point difference was higher than for any president from Dwight Eisenhower on, save for Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush. This pattern of partisan polarization continued once Hillary Clinton became an elected official; University of California, San Diego political science professor Gary Jacobson‘s 2006 study found that in a state-by-state survey of job approval ratings of the state’s senators, Clinton had the fourth most polarized ratings of any senator, with again a 50 percentage point difference in approval between New York’s Democrats and Republicans.
Popular media expressions of the polarized response to Clinton have often focused on gender themes. During her husband’s 1992 presidential campaign, a reporter asked her, “Some people think of you as an inspiring female attorney mother, and other people think of you as the overbearing yuppie wife from hell. How would you describe yourself?” A columnist suggested she could be easily seen as either a positive role model or a nagging “hall monitor” type. In 1995, after the failure of her health care reform initiative, another reporter labeled Clinton “the First Lady as Rorschach test,” an assessment echoed by feminist writer and activist Betty Friedan. Polarization can also occur along gender lines; Burrell’s study found women consistently rating Clinton more favorably than men by about ten percentage points during her First Lady years. Jacobson’s study found a positive correlation between not just Clinton, but senators in general, being women and receiving a polarizing response.
Such gender themes led from Clinton’s background and her new role. Colorado State University communication studies professor Karrin Vasby Anderson describes the First Lady position as a “site” for American womanhood, one ready made for the symbolic negotiation of female identity. In particular there has been a cultural bias towards traditional first ladies and a cultural prohibition against modern first ladies; by the time of Clinton, the First Lady position had become a site of heterogeneity and paradox. Nowhere was this paradox more evident than when Clinton achieved her highest approval ratings as First Lady late in 1998, not for any professional or political achievement of her own but for being seen as the victim of her husband’s very public infidelity. University of Pennsylvania communications professor Kathleen Hall Jamieson saw Hillary Clinton as an exemplar of the double bind, who though able to live in a “both-and” world of both career and family, nevertheless “became a surrogate on whom we projected our attitudes about attributes once thought incompatible,” leading to her being placed in a variety of no-win situations. The world of political cartoons also played in the symbolic negotiation: University of Indianapolis English professor Charlotte Templin found cartoonists using a variety of stereotypes such as gender reversal, radical feminist as emasculator, and the wife the husband wants to get rid of, to portray Hillary Clinton as violating gender norms.
The polarized response to Hillary Clinton has been reflected in the publishing and fundraising worlds. Over fifty books and scholarly works have been written about Hillary Clinton, from many different angles. There has been a cottage industry in attack books against her, put out by Regnery Publishing and its brethren, with lurid subtitles such as Madame Hillary: The Dark Road to the White House, Hillary’s Scheme: Inside the Next Clinton’s Ruthless Agenda to Take the White House, and Can She Be Stopped? : Hillary Clinton Will Be the Next President of the United States Unless …. When she ran for Senate in 2000, a number of fundraising groups with dire-sounding names such as Save Our Senate and the Emergency Committee to Stop Hillary Rodham Clinton sprang up. She was a reliable bogeyman of Republican and conservative fundraising letters, on a par with Ted Kennedy (who finished first in Jacobson’s study of partisan polarization among senators) and the equivalent of Democratic and liberal appeals to fear of Newt Gingrich.
Going into the early stages of her presidential campaign for 2008, themes of polarization and gender continued in the popular media. A Time magazine cover showed a large picture of her, with two checkboxes labeled “Love Her”, “Hate Her”, while Mother Jones titled its profile of her “Harpy, Hero, Heretic: Hillary”. There were a few signs that the polarized response to her might be abating. Democratic netroots activists consistently rated Clinton very low in polls of their desired candidates, while some conservative figures such as Bruce Bartlett and Christopher Ruddy were declaring a Hillary Clinton presidency not so bad after all and an October 2007 cover of The American Conservative magazine was titled “The Waning Power of Hillary Hate”. However, once the campaign was in full force, gender issues re-emerged. Communications professor Jamieson observed that there was a large amount of misogyny present about Clinton on the Internet, up to and including Facebook and other sites devoted to depictions reducing Clinton to sexual humiliation. She also noted that, in response to widespread commenting on the nature of Clinton’s laugh, that “We know that there’s language to condemn female speech that doesn’t exist for male speech. We call women’s speech shrill and strident. And Hillary Clinton’s laugh was being described as a cackle.” And following Clinton’s “choked up moment” and related incidents before the New Hampshire primary, discussion of gender’s role in the campaign moved front and center in national political discussion.
- ^ http://www.opensecrets.org/pfds/pfd2005/N00000019_2005.pdf
- ^ See Danny Hakim. “Hillary, Not as in the Mount Everest Guy“, The New York Times, 2006-10-17. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ Hillary vs. Hillary. Snopes.com (2006-10-26). Retrieved on 2007-11-23.
- ^ Rachel Alexander. “How to Beat Hillary in 2008“, Intellectual Conservative, 2006-02-12. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ Edgewater Hospital 1929–2001. Edgewater Historical Society (Summer 2003). Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
- ^ Clinton, Hillary Rodham (2003). Living History. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2224-5. , p. 7.
- ^ a b Living History, p. 9.
- ^ Living History, p. 4.
- ^ Living History, p. 8.
- ^ Living History, p. 2. Clinton also claims a possible Native American heritage for her mother.
- ^ a b c d Hillary Clinton’s Education. Hillary-Rodham-Clinton.org. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ a b Dr. Doug Kelly. Hillary Clinton’s High School Yearbook. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
- ^ a b c Hillary Rodham Clinton. White House. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ a b Brock, David (2006). The Seduction of Hillary Rodham (excerpt from the book). Retrieved on 2007-02-05. Her father was an outspoken Republican, while her mother kept quiet but was “basically a Democrat.” See Living History, p. 11.
- ^ Gerth, Jeff; Don Van Natta, Jr. (2007). Her Way: The Hopes and Ambitions of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-01742-6. , p. 19.
- ^ Middendorf, J. William (2006). Glorious Disaster: Barry Goldwater’s Presidential Campaign And the Origins of the Conservative Movement. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04573-1. p. 266.
- ^ a b Troy, Gil (2006). Hillary Rodham Clinton: Polarizing First Lady. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1488-5. p. 15.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 18–21. The teacher, Paul Carlson, and the minister, Donald Jones, came into conflict with each in Park Ridge; Clinton would later see that “as an early indication of the cultural, political and religious fault lines that developed across America in the [next] forty years.” Living History, p. 23.
- ^ Hillary Rodham Clinton (1992-05-29). Hillary Rodham Clinton Remarks to Wellesley College Class of 1992. Wellesley College. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
- ^ Milton, Joyce (1999). The First Partner: Hillary Rodham Clinton. William Morris. ISBN 0-688-15501-4. pp. 27–28.
- ^ a b Living History, p. 31.
- ^ Wellesley College Republicans: History and Purpose (2007-05-16). Retrieved on 2007-06-02. Gives organization’s prior name.
- ^ Brock, David (1996). The Seduction of Hillary Rodham. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 0-684-83451-0. pp. 12–13.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 50. Bernstein states she believed this combination was possible and that no equation better describes the adult Hillary Clinton.
- ^ a b c d e Charles Kenney. “Hillary: The Wellesley Years: The woman who will live in the White House was a sharp-witted activist in the class of ’69” (fee required), The Boston Globe, 1993-01-12. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
- ^ Living History, p. 32.
- ^ a b c d Leibovich, Mark. “In Turmoil of ’68, Clinton Found a New Voice“, The New York Times, 2007-09-07. Retrieved on 2007-09-06. (English)
- ^ a b Rodham, Hillary D. (1969-05-31). Wellesley College 1969 Student Commencement Speech. Wellesley College. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Dedman, Bill (2007-03-02). Reading Hillary Rodham’s hidden thesis. MSNBC.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-02.
- ^ Living History, pp. 38–39.
- ^ “Brooke Speech Challenged by Graduate”, Fitchburg Sentinel, 1969-06-02.
- ^ “Brooke Speech Draws Reply”, Nevada State Journal, 1969-06-02.
- ^ Bernstein, Carl (2007). A Woman in Charge: The Life of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-3754-0766-9. , p. 70.
- ^ Living History, pp. 42–43. Clinton would later write, and repeat on the Late Show with David Letterman, that sliming fish was the best preparation she would ever have for living in Washington.
- ^ Morris, Roger (1996). Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America. Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-2804-8. , p. 139.
- ^ a b c Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (1947–). The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
- ^ a b Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 42–43.
- ^ a b c Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 75.
- ^ The authors of Beyond the Best Interests of the Child were Center director Al Solnit, Yale Law professor Joe Goldstein, and Anna Freud.
- ^ Morris, Partners in Power, pp. 142–143.
- ^ a b Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 71–74.
- ^ Gerth and Van Natta Jr., Her Way, p. 46.
- ^ Living History, pp. 54–55.
- ^ a b c Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 82–83.
- ^ a b Josh Gerstein. “Hillary Clinton’s Radical Summer“, The New York Sun, 2007-11-26. Retrieved on 2007-11-29.
- ^ It is unclear exactly which cases Rodham worked on at the Treuhaft firm; see Josh Gerstein. “Hillary Clinton’s Radical Summer“, The New York Sun, 2007-11-26. Retrieved on 2007-11-29. . Anti-Clinton writers such as Barbara Olson would later charge Hillary Clinton with never repudiating Treuhaft’s ideology, and for retaining social and political ties with his wife and fellow communist Jessica Mitford. See Barbara Olson (1999). Hell to Pay: The Unfolding Story of Hillary Rodham Clinton. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-197-9. pp. 56–57. Research by The New York Sun in 2007 revealed that Mitford and Hillary Clinton were not close, and had a falling out over a 1980 Arkansas prisoner case. See Josh Gerstein. “Hillary Clinton’s Left Hook“, The New York Sun, 2007-11-27. Retrieved on 2007-11-29.
- ^ a b Josh Gerstein. “The Clintons’ Berkeley Summer of Love“, The New York Sun, 2007-11-26. Retrieved on 2007-12-01.
- ^ Gerth and Van Natta Jr., Her Way, p. 48–49.
- ^ Living History, pp. 58–60.
- ^ a b Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 89.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i First Lady Biography: Hillary Clinton. National First Ladies’ Library. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Rodham, Hillary (1973). “Children Under the Law”. Harvard Educational Review 43: 487–514.
- ^ Troy, Polarizing First Lady, p. 21.
- ^ a b c d Tamar Lewin. “Legal Scholars See Distortion In Attacks on Hillary Clinton“, The New York Times, 1992-08-24. Retrieved on 2008-01-27.
- ^ This Google search result produces several hundred hits. Many are citations of “Children Under the Law” in other scholarly articles or books. There are many general media references and Wikipedia echoes as well.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 91–92.
- ^ “Adults Urge Children’s Rights”, The Arizona Sentinel, 1974-10-04.
- ^ Living History, pp. 65–69.
- ^ a b c Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 94–96, 101–103.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 62.
- ^ Maraniss, David (1995). First In His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-87109-9. p. 277.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 90, 120.
- ^ Living History, p. 64. According to Carl Bernstein‘s 2007 biography, two-thirds (551 of 817) of the takers of the D.C. exam had passed, and Rodham did not tell even close friends of the failure until revealing it thirty years later in her autobiography. See A Woman in Charge, p. 92.
- ^ Living History, p. 69. Excerpted at Hillary Rodham Clinton. “Hillary Unbound“, Time, 2003-06-08. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
- ^ Living History, p. 70.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 62, 90, 117.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 120.
- ^ Living History, p. 75.
- ^ Living History, pp. 91–92.
- ^ Living History, p. 78.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 128. The firm was actually called Rose, Nash, Williamson, Carroll, Clay & Giroir at the time; it simplified its name to Rose Law Firm in 1980.
- ^ a b Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 130.
- ^ a b c Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 133.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 131–132.
- ^ Rodham, Hillary (June 1977). “Children’s Policies: Abandonment and Neglect”. Yale Law Journal 68 (7): 1522–1531.
- ^ Rodham, Hillary (1979). “Children’s Rights: A Legal Perspective”, in Patricia A. Vardin, Ilene N. Brody (eds.): Children’s Rights: Contemporary Perspectives. New York: Teacher’s College Press, 21–36.
- ^ Garry Wills. “H.R. Clinton’s Case“, The New York Review of Books, 1992-03-05. Retrieved on 2008-01-26.
- ^ a b Daniel Wattenberg. “The Lady Macbeth of Little Rock”, The American Spectator, August 1992.
- ^ Barbara Olson (1999). Hell to Pay: The Unfolding Story of Hillary Rodham Clinton. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-197-9. p. 57.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 154.
- ^ Living History, pp. 77–78.
- ^ Jimmy Carter: Nominations Submitted to the Senate, Week Ending Friday, December 16th, 1977. American Presidency Project. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
- ^ Ronald Reagan: Recess Appointment of Three Members of the Board of Directors of the Legal Services Corporation. American Presidency Project (1982-01-22). Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
- ^ The dates are in dispute: from 1978 according to Barbara Olson, Barbara Olson (1999). Hell to Pay: The Unfolding Story of Hillary Rodham Clinton. Regnery Publishing. , p. 128; from 1979 according to National Equal Justice Library, Oral Histories]. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton discussing her experiences as Chair of the Legal Services Corporation Board of Directors from 1979–80. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. and through at least part of 1980, according to House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Departments of State, Justice, Commerce, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1980, U.S. House of Representatives hearings. The Chair of the Legal Services Corporation from 1980–1981 was F. William McCalpin, according to his law firm biography. Bill Clinton says she became Board Chair when she was twenty-nine years old (i.e. before 1978).
- ^ Morris, Partners in Power, p. 225.
- ^ Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton (NY). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 147.
- ^ a b c d e f Stephen Labaton (1994-02-26). Rose Law Firm, Arkansas Power, Slips as It Steps Onto a Bigger Stage. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
- ^ Hillary Rodham Clinton. Edwardsly.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ a b Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 66–67.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 73–76.
- ^ Bill Clinton’s advisors thought her use of her maiden name to be one of the reasons behind his 1980 gubernatorial re-election loss. During the following winter, Vernon Jordan suggested to Hillary Rodham that she start using Clinton as her name, and she began to do so publicly with Bill Clinton’s February 1982 campaign announcement. She later wrote that “I learned the hard way that some voters in Arkansas were seriously offended by the fact that I kept my maiden name.” Living History, pp. 91–93; see also Morris, Partners in Power, p. 282.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 166.
- ^ Hillary Chairs Arkansas Educational Standards Committee · 1982 – 1992. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ a b c d e Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 170–175. Bernstein states that “the political battle for education reform … would be her greatest accomplishment in public life until she was elected to the U.S. Senate.”
- ^ “Hillary Clinton Guides Movement to Change Public Education in Arkansas“, The Arkansas News, Spring 1993. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Kearney, Janis F. (2006). Conversations: William Jefferson Clinton, from Hope to Harlem. Writing Our World Press. ISBN 0976205815. p. 295.
- ^ Hillary Rodham Clinton. Scholastic Press. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, p. 63.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., pp. 80–81.
- ^ a b Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 82–84.
- ^ “Clinton, Hillary Rodham“, 300 Women who Changed the World, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, p. 85.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 187–189.
- ^ Hon. Hillary Rodham Clinton. FindLaw. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
- ^ Board of Directors Emeritus. Children’s Defense Fund. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
- ^ Hillary Rodham Clinton. The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-05-30. Bio entry.
- ^ a b Harkavy, Ward. “Wal-Mart’s First Lady“, The Village Voice, 2000-05-24. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Picard, Ken. “Vermonters to Hillary: Don’t Tread on Us“, Seven Days, 2005-05-04. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
- ^ a b c d e Michael Barbaro. “As a Director, Clinton Moved Wal-Mart Board, but Only So Far“, The New York Times, 2007-05-20. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
- ^ a b c Brian Ross, Maddy Sauer, Rhonda Schwartz. “Clinton Remained Silent As Wal-Mart Fought Unions“, ABC News, 2008-01-31. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
- ^ Clintons to Rebut Rumors on “60 Minutes”. The New York Times (1992-01-25). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
- ^ In 1992, Clinton Conceded Marital ‘Wrongdoing’. The Washington Post (1992-01-26). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
- ^ “Paula Jones challenges Clinton to debate“, CNN, 2004-06-30. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ During the political damage control over the Gennifer Flowers episode during the 1992 campaign, Hillary Clinton said in a joint 60 Minutes interview, “I’m not sitting here as some little woman ‘standing by my man’ like Tammy Wynette. I’m sitting here because I love him and I respect him, and I honor what he’s been through and what we’ve been through together.” The seemingly sneering reference to country music provoked immediate criticism that Clinton was culturally tone-deaf, and Tammy Wynette herself did not like the remark because her classic song “Stand by Your Man” is not written in the first person. See “2000: Hillary Clinton is first First Lady in Senate“, BBC, 2000-11-07. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. Wynette further said that Clinton had “offended every true country music fan and every person who has ‘made it on their own’ with no one to take them to a White House.” See “Tammy Wynette, country music’s first lady, dies at 55“, CNN.com, 1998-04-07. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. A few days later, on Prime Time Live, Clinton apologized to Wynette. Clinton would later write that she had not been careful in her choice of words and that “the fallout from my reference to Tammy Wynette was instant — as it deserved to be — and brutal.” See Living History, p. 108. The two women patched things up, with Wynette appearing later at a Clinton fund raiser.
- ^ Less than two months after the Tammy Wynette remarks, Hillary Clinton was facing questions about whether she could have avoided possible conflicts of interest between her Governor husband and work given to the Rose Law Firm, when she remarked, “I’ve done the best I can to lead my life … You know, I suppose I could have stayed home and baked cookies and had teas, but what I decided to do was fulfill my profession, which I entered before my husband was in public life.” See Living History, p. 109. The “cookies and teas” part of this prompted even more culture-based criticism, objecting to Clinton’s apparent distaste for women who had chosen a homemaker role in life. See Hillary Clinton. Miller Center of Public Affairs. University of Virginia. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. Clinton subsequently offered up some cookie recipes as a way of making amends, and would later write of her chagrin: “Besides, I’ve done quite a lot of cookie baking in my life, and tea-pouring too!” Living History, p. 109.
- ^ Brock, Seduction of Hillary Rodham, p. 261.
- ^ “ABC Nightline transcript: Making Hillary Clinton An Issue“, PBS Frontline, 1992-03-26. Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
- ^ Anthony York. “On her own“, Salon magazine, 1999-07-08. Retrieved on 2007-07-14. Her announcement was parodied by the May 1993 film spoof Hot Shots! Part Deux, in which all the female characters were given the middle name “Rodham”; see IMDB entry.
- ^ First post-graduate degree through regular study and scholarly work. Eleanor Roosevelt had been previously awarded a post-graduate honorary degree. Clinton’s successor Laura Bush became the second First Lady with a post-graduate degree.
- ^ a b c “Hillary Rodham Clinton”, Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2006. Retrieved on August 22, 2006.
- ^ Rajghatta, Chidanand (1st quarter 2004). “First Lady President?”. Verve magazine 12 (1). Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Peart, Karen N.. “The First Lady: Homemaker or Policy-Maker?“, Scholastic Press. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Greenberg, Paul. “Israel’s new friend: Hillary, born-again Zionist“, Jewish World Review, 1999-07-15. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ A perilous portmanteau?. Language Log (2005-11-01). Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ The Eleanor Roosevelt “discussions” were first reported in 1996 by Washington Post writer Bob Woodward; they had begun from the start of Hillary Clinton’s time as First Lady. See “Adviser downplays Hillary Clinton’s conversations with Eleanor Roosevelt“, CNN.com, 1996-06-24. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. Following the Democrats’ loss of congressional control in the 1994 elections, Clinton had engaged the services of self help expert Jean Houston, who allegedly sometimes dabbled in psychic experiences, spirits, trances, and hypnosis. Houston encouraged Clinton to pursue the Roosevelt connection, and while none of these psychic techniques were used with Clinton, critics and comics immediately suggested that Clinton was holding séances with Eleanor Roosevelt. The White House stated that this was merely a brainstorming exercise, and a private poll later indicated that most of the public believed these were indeed just imaginary conversations, with the remainder believing that communication with the dead was actually possible. See Francis Wheen. “Never mind the pollsters“, The Guardian, 2000-07-26. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. In her 2003 autobiography, Clinton titled an entire chapter “Conversations with Eleanor”, and stated that holding “imaginary conversations [is] actually a useful mental exercise to help analyze problems, provided you choose the right person to visualize. Eleanor Roosevelt was ideal [as a trail-blazer and controversial First Lady].” See Living History, pp. 258–259.
- ^ a b Kathryn Joyce and Jeff Sharlet. “Hillary’s Prayer: Hillary Clinton’s Religion and Politics“, Mother Jones, September/October 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 313–314.
- ^ Michael Kelly. “St. Hillary”, The New York Times Magazine, 1993-05-23.
- ^ Priscilla Painton. “The Politics of What?“, Time, 1993-05-31. Retrieved on 2007-10-20.
- ^ Living History, pp. 110–111.
- ^ Postrel, Virginia (2004). The Substance of Style: How the Rise of Aesthetic Value Is Remaking Commerce, Culture, and Consciousness. HarperCollins. ISBN 0060933852. pp. 72–73.
- ^ “Forget the Primaries: Vote for Hillary’s Hair“, Associated Press, 1996-03-02. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ “Fashionable first lady — Hillary strikes a pose for Vogue“, CNN, 1998-11-24. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ a b c d Data for table is from Favorability: People in the News: Hillary Clinton. The Gallup Organization (2008). Retrieved on 2008-01-26. See also Charles H. Franklin (2007-01-21). Hillary Clinton, Favorable/Unfavorable, 1993-2007. Political Arithmetik. Retrieved on 2008-01-26. for confirmation of trend line and historical interpretation.
- ^ a b Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 400–402.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 139–140.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 240, 380, 530. The Whitewater investigations were also a factor in her decline.
- ^ “A Detailed Timeline of the Healthcare Debate portrayed in ‘The System’“, May 1996. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ James Carney. “The Once and Future Hillary“, Time date=1994-12-12. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ Klein, Joe. “The Republican Who Thinks Big on Health Care“, Time, 2005-12-04. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Beth Fouhy. “Hillary Claims Credit for Child Program“, Associated Press, 2007-10-05. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
- ^ Remarks by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton at Medicare Mammography Awareness Campaign Kick-off. The White House (1995-05-01). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
- ^ Clinton, Hillary Rodham: Address to the White House Conference on Child Care (1997-10-23). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ Remarks by the President and the First Lady at White House Conference on Early Child Development and Learning (1997-04-17). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ White House Conference on Children and Adolescents (2000-04-26). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ “White House convenes conference on teen-agers“, CNN, 2000-05-02. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ Hillary Rodham Clinton (1999-10-27). Talking It Over. Creators Syndicate. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ^ a b Patrick Healy. “The Résumé Factor: Those 8 Years as First Lady“, The New York Times, 2007-12-26. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
- ^ First Lady Biography: Pat Nixon. National First Ladies’ Library. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
- ^ a b Patrick Tyler. “Hillary Clinton, In People’s Republic of China, Details Abuse of Women“, The New York Times, 1995-09-06. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
- ^ Feminist Majority Joins European Parliament’s Call to End Gender Apartheid in Afghanistan. Feminist Majority (Spring 1998). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ Deborah Tate. “CLINTON – TALIBAN“, Voice of America, 1999-12-06. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ Vital Voices — Our History (2000). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
- ^ a b c Jeff Gerth. “Clintons Joined S.& L. Operator In an Ozark Real-Estate Venture“, The New York Times, 1992-03-08. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
- ^ a b Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 72–73.
- ^ “Whitewater started as ‘sweetheart’ deal“, CNN, 1996-05-06. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ a b Whitewater – Further Readings. American Law Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ a b Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 158–160.
- ^ Living History, p. 331
- ^ Once Upon a Time in Arkansas: Rose Law Firm Billing Records. Frontline. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ Blitzer, Wolf. “Subpoena brings out White House damage control“, CNN, 1996-01-23. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
- ^ “Cast of Characters“, CNN, 1997-07-04. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
- ^ “Ray: Insufficient evidence to prosecute Clintons in Whitewater probe“, CNN, 2000-09-20. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 327–328.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 439–444.
- ^ Jane Hughes. “Hillary escapes ‘Travelgate’ charges“, BBC News, 2000-06-23. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- ^ “Opening the Flood Gates?“, NewsHour, 1996-06-18. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ Bob Woodward. “A Prosecutor Bound by Duty“, The Washington Post, 1999-06-15. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ “Statement by Independent Counsel on Conclusions in Whitewater Investigation“, The New York Times, 2000-09-21. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Jeff Gerth, others. “Top Arkansas Lawyer Helped Hillary Clinton Turn Big Profit“, The New York Times, 1994-03-18. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
- ^ a b Claudia Rosett. “Hillary’s Bull Market“, The Wall Street Journal, 2000-10-26. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
- ^ a b “Independent counsel: No evidence to warrant prosecution against first lady in ‘filegate’“, CNN, 2000-07-28. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ “‘Filegate’ Depositions Sought From White House Aides“, CNN, 1998-04-01. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ Starr Report: Nature of President Clinton’s Relationship with Monica Lewinsky. U.S. G.P.O. (1998-09-08). Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
- ^ “Hillary Clinton: ‘This Is A Battle’“, CNN, 1998-01-27. Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
- ^ Clinton was referring to the Arkansas Project and its funder Richard Mellon Scaife, Kenneth Starr’s connections to Scaife, Regnery Publishing and its connections to Lucianne Goldberg and Linda Tripp, Jerry Falwell, and others. See Walter Kirn. “Persecuted or Paranoid? A look at the motley characters behind Hillary Clinton’s ‘vast right-wing conspiracy’“, Time, 1998-02-09. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
- ^ “Interview with Hillary Rodham Clinton“, Larry King Live, CNN, 2003-06-10. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 517.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, pp. 512, 518.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 521.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, p. 195.
- ^ Anthony York. ““Get on your broomstick and go home!”“, Salon.com, 2000-11-02. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ a b Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, p. 195.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 530.
- ^ Hillary and Bill: “It Works”. AdvisorTeam.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
- ^ Save America’s Treasures — About Us. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
- ^ “Clinton toasts 2000 at White House VIP dinner“, CNN, 1999-12-31. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
- ^ Remarks By First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton at The Sculpture Garden Reception. The White House (1996-01-05). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
- ^ Graff, Henry Franklin (2002). The Presidents: A Reference History. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684312263. p. liii.
- ^ a b Lindsay, Rae (2001). The Presidents’ First Ladies. R & R Writers/Agents. ISBN 0965375331. pp. 248–249.
- ^ A Race Of Her Own. Time magazine (1999-03-01). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
- ^ Clinton Is Welcome in Harlem. Congressman Charles Rangel, Washington D.C. Office (2001-02-14). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
- ^ Adam Nagourney. “With Some Help, Clintons Purchase a White House“, The New York Times, 1999-09-03. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, p. 210.
- ^ a b “Hillary Rodham Clinton scores historic win in New York“, CNN, 2000-11-08. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ For example, the Sierra Club Randal C. Archibold. “Hillary Clinton Is Endorsed By Sierra Club as Better Ally“, The New York Times, 2000-09-06. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ Steven Greenhouse. “Hillary Clinton Stars, Unrivaled, at Labor Day Parade”, The New York Times, 2000-09-10. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ Elisabeth Bumiller. “Police Union Backs Lazio, Citing First Lady’s Statement“, 2000-09-08. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ “Clinton wins endorsement of city’s firefighter unions“, Associated Press, 2006-04-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ Clifford J. Levy. “Lazio Sets Spending Mark for a Losing Senate Bid“, The New York Times, 2000-12-13. Retrieved on 2008-02-22.
- ^ Federal Elections 2000: U.S. Senate results. Federal Election Commission. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Chaddock, Gail Russell. “Clinton’s quiet path to power“, Christian Science Monitor, 2003-03-10. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Hunt, Albert R.. “A Tale of Two Clintons“, Wall Street Journal, 2001-04-07. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Kuhn, Martin. “Sen. Clinton Stresses Chronic Disease Needs”, National Press Club, 2001-07-26. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 548.
- ^ a b c Senate Temporary Committee Chairs. University of Michigan Documents Center (2001-05-24). Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
- ^ a b c Jeff Gerth, Don Van Natta, Jr.. “Hillary’s War“, The New York Times Magazine, 2007-05-29. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
- ^ Committees. Official Senate web site. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
- ^ About the Commission: Commissioners. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
- ^ “Senate, House appoint Helsinki commissioners“, The Ukrainian Weekly, 2001-05-20. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 231–232.
- ^ Bernstein, A Woman In Charge, p. 548.
- ^ William C. Thompson, Jr. (2002-09-04). Remarks Prepared for Delivery Association for a Better New York. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
- ^ For example, Senator Clinton Calls on President Bush to Sign Emergency Designation to Provide Aid to Ground Zero Workers and Volunteers. Official Senate web site (2002-08-05). Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ Statement of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton on the USA Patriot Act Reauthorization Conference Report. Official Senate web site (2005-12-16). Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
- ^ U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 109th Congress – 2nd Session … On the Conference Report (H.R. 3199 Conference Report). United States Senate (2006-03-02).
- ^ Clinton, Hillary. “New Hope For Afghanistan’s Women“, Attacks on World Trade Center/Pentagon, Time, 2001-11-24. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ “Clinton says insurgency is failing“, Associated Press, 2005-02-19. Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
- ^ Turner, Douglas. “Clinton wants increase in size of regular Army”, The Buffalo News, 2005-07-14. Retrieved on 2006-08-22. (no longer free)
- ^ Fitzgerald, Jim. “Hillary Clinton says immediate withdrawal from Iraq would be ‘a big mistake’“, Associated Press, 2005-11-21. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Balz, Dan. “Hillary Clinton Crafts Centrist Stance on War“, The Washington Post, 2005-12-12, p. A01. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Meadows, Susannah. “Hillary’s Military Offensive“, Newsweek, 2005-12-12. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Statement of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton on the Nomination of John Roberts to be Chief Justice of the United States. Clinton.Senate.gov (2005-09-22). Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ Groppe, Maureen. “Alito filibuster fails; Bayh, Lugar split“, The Indianapolis Star, 2006-01-31. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ “Clinton wades into GTA sex storm“, BBC News, 2005-07-14. Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, p. 401.
- ^ Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, p. 313.
- ^ a b Noel Sheppard. “Hillary Clinton Told YearlyKos Convention She Helped Start Media Matters“, NewsBusters, 2007-10-01. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
- ^ a b c Gerth, Van Natta Jr., Her Way, pp. 267–269.
- ^ Hirschkorn, Phil. “Sen. Clinton’s GOP challenger quits race“, CNN, 2005-12-21. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ “GOP Primary Turnout Was Lowest In More Than 30 Years”, Newsday, 2006-09-17.
- ^ “New York State Board of Elections, General Election Results“, New York State, 2006-12-14. Retrieved on 2006-12-16.
- ^ “Is America Ready?“, Newsweek, 2006-12-25. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
- ^ Anne E. Kornblut and Jeff Zeleny. “Clinton Won Easily, but Bankroll Shows the Toll”, The New York Times, 2006-11-21. page A1.
- ^ a b “Record millions roll in for Clinton White House bid“, CNN, 2007-04-01. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
- ^ “Senate GOP foils debate on Iraq surge”, Associated Press, 2007-02-17. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
- ^ “Senate passes war spending bill with withdrawal deadline”, CNN.com, 2007-03-29. Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
- ^ “Bush to sign war funding bill Friday“, Boston Globe, 2007-05-25. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
- ^ Eli Lake. “Clinton Spars With Petraeus on Credibility“, The New York Sun, 2007-09-12. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
- ^ “Senate Approves Symbolic Rebuke of Iran“, Fox News, 2007-09-26. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
- ^ “Hillary Clinton Calls for Gonzales’ Resignation“, ABC News, 2007-03-13. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
- ^ “Hillary Launches Web Effort to Oust Gonzales“, Newsmax.com, 2007-03-14. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
- ^ On the Cloture Motion (Motion to Invoke Cloture on the Motion to Proceed to Consider S.1639). U.S. Senate (2007-06-26).
- ^ Dowd, Maureen. “Can Hillary Upgrade?“, The New York Times, 2002-10-02, p. A27. Retrieved on 2006-08-22. (preview only)
- ^ The 100 Most Powerful Women. Forbes magazine (2006-08-31). Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
- ^ Karen Tumulty (2007). The TIME 100: Hillary Clinton. Time. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Roberts, John. “Hillary Clinton launches White House bid: ‘I’m in’“, CNN, 2007-01-22. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
- ^ Susan Page. “Call her Madame President“, USA Today, 2005-10-10. Retrieved on 2008-01-10.
- ^ Graham, Jed. “McCain, Giuliani Fare Well Vs. Top Dems, While Edwards Might Be Toughest Rival“, Investors.com, 2007-01-05. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
- ^ Langer, Gary; Craighill, Peyton M.. “Clinton Leads ’08 Dems; No Bounce for Obama“, ABC News, 2007-01-21. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
- ^ Jeff Zeleny. “Obama Raised $32.5 Million in Second Quarter“, The New York Times, 2007-07-01. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
- ^ Dan Morain. “Clinton leads the field in campaign fundraising“, The Los Angeles Times, 2007-10-02. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Schneider, Bill. ““Poll: Liberals moving toward Clinton; GOP race tightens”“, CNN, 2007-05-07. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
- ^ Rasmussen Reports (2007-05-07). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
- ^ Patrick Healy. “To Avoid Conflicts, Clintons Liquidate Holdings“, The New York Times, 2007-06-15. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
- ^ a b Tim Middleton. “Hillary Clinton: Midas touch at work“, MSN.com, 2007-09-04. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
- ^ Mike McIntire, Leslie Wayne. “Clinton Donor Under a Cloud In Fraud Case“, The New York Times, 2007-08-30. Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
- ^ “Big Source of Clinton’s Cash Is an Unlikely Address“, Wall Street Journal, 2007-08-28. Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
- ^ Jim Kuhnhenn. “Clinton to Give Away Fundraiser’s Cash“, Associated Press, 2007-08-29. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
- ^ Lara Jakes Jordan. “Clinton to return $850,000 raised by Hsu”, Associated Press, 2007-09-10. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
- ^ “Hillary Clinton Leaps Ahead In Latest Democratic Poll“, Fox News, 2007-10-03. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Anne E. Kornblut and Dan Balz. “Clinton Regroups As Rivals Pounce“, The Washington Post, 2007-11-01. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
- ^ Jake Tapper. “Hillary Gets Poor Grades at Drexel Debate“, Political Punch, ABC News, 2007-10-31. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
- ^ Roger Simon. “Obama, Edwards attack; Clinton bombs debate“, The Politico, 2007-10-31. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
- ^ “Clinton shouldn’t worry just about IA“, MSNBC, 2007-12-09. Retrieved on 2007-12-10.
- ^ Iowa Democratic Party Caucus Results. Retrieved on 2008-01-23.
- ^ a b Dick Meyer. “Analysis: Mrs. Comeback Kid & Obama’s Wave“, CBS News, 2008-01-08. Retrieved on 2008-01-08.
- ^ New Hampshire Democratic Primary. RealClearPolitics (2008-01-08). Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
- ^ John Whitesides. “Clinton scores surprise win in New Hampshire“, Reuters, 2008-01-09. Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
- ^ a b “Clinton’s stunning victory“, Chicago Tribune, 2008-01-08. Retrieved on 2008-01-08.
- ^ “Official Results“, Associated Press, 2008-01-10. Retrieved on 2008-01-13.
- ^ Cathleen Decker, Mark Z. Barabak. “Clinton had voters’ sympathy — and a message they liked“, Los Angeles Times, 2008-01-10. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
- ^ a b Carl Hulse, Patrick Healy. “Bill Clinton Tries to Tamp Down ‘Fairy-Tale’ Remark About Obama“, The New York Times, 2008-01-11. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
- ^ a b c Vaughn Ververs. “Analysis: Bill Clinton’s Lost Legacy“, CBS News, 2008-01-26. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
- ^ Josh Levs. “Clinton: Obama camp is ‘distorting’ her remarks“, CNN, 2008-01-13. Retrieved on 2008-01-13.
- ^ Hillary Clinton said to a news correspondent asking for reaction to an Obama remark earlier in the day about his possibly representing false hope: “I would point to the fact that that Dr. King’s dream began to be realized when President Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, when he was able to get through Congress something that President Kennedy was hopeful to do, the President before had not even tried, but it took a president to get it done. That dream became a reality, the power of that dream became real in people’s lives because we had a president who said we are going to do it, and actually got it accomplished.” See for transcript: Carl Hulse, Patrick Healy. “Bill Clinton Tries to Tamp Down ‘Fairy-Tale’ Remark About Obama“, The New York Times, 2008-01-11. Retrieved on 2008-01-28. See for actual interview: Major Garrett. “Clinton’s Candid Assessment“, Fox News, 2008-01-07. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
- ^ Larry Sabato. “The Race for President: The Finalists Emerge“, RealClearPolitics, 2008-01-24. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
- ^ a b Edward Luce. “‘Truce’ has little impact on black vote“, Financial Times, 2008-01-17. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
- ^ “Clinton, Obama downplay their rhetoric following angry exchanges ahead of S. Carolina vote“, International Herald-Tribune, Associated Press, 2004-01-24. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
- ^ a b “Clinton, Romney win in Nevada“, Associated Press for MSNBC.com, 2008-01-19. Retrieved on 2008-01-26.
- ^ “Clinton claims Nevada caucuses with help from women, Latinos“, CNN.com, 2008-01-19. Retrieved on 2008-01-26.
- ^ “Obama claims big win in South Carolina“, CNN.com, 2008-01-26. Retrieved on 2008-01-26.
- ^ a b Candy Crowley. “Clinton campaign advisers: Bill Clinton ‘needs to stop’“, CNN, 2008-01-28. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
- ^ Patrick Healy. “Clinton’s Camp Seeks Gentler Role for Ex-President“, The New York Times, 2008-01-28. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
- ^ a b “McCain Widens Lead, Clinton Lends Cash“, Associated Press for NPR, 2008-02-07. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
- ^ Karen Tumulty. “Super Tuesday: The Most Interesting Number of All“, Time.com, 2008-02-06. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
- ^ Chuck Todd & others. “First thoughst: Deadlocked“, FirstRead, MSNBC.com, 2008-02-07. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
- ^ Glenn Adams. “Obama defeats Clinton in Maine caucuses“, Associated Press for Yahoo! News, 2008-02-11. Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
- ^ John M. Broder, Dalia Sussman. “Obama and McCain Sweep 3 Primaries“, The New York Times, 2008-02-13. Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
- ^ “Obama, McCain extend winning streaks“, CNN, 2008-02-20. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
- ^ Stephen Ohlemacher. “Obama wins Democrats Abroad primary“, Associated Press for Yahoo! News, 2008-02-21. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
- ^ “RESULTS: March 4 – MULTI-STATE EVENTS“, CNN, 2008-03-04. Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
- ^ “Poll: Mixed messages for Hillary Clinton“, CNN, 2005-05-26. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
- ^ Curry, Tom. “Clinton burnishes hawkish image“, MSNBC.com, 2005-07-14. Retrieved on 2006-08-23.
- ^ Brian Friel, Richard E. Cohen, Kirk Victor. “Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007“, National Journal, 2008-01-31. Retrieved on 2008-02-27.
- ^ Clinton, Joshua D.; Jackman, Simon; Rivers, Doug (October 2004). ““The Most Liberal Senator”? Analyzing and Interpreting Congressional Roll Calls” (PDF). Political Science & Politics.
- ^ See Michael Barone and Richard E. Cohen (2008). The Almanac of American Politics. National Journal, 1126. and Michael Barone and Richard E. Cohen (2006). The Almanac of American Politics. National Journal, 1152. . The scores for individual years are [highest rating 100, format: liberal, (conservative)]: 2003: Economic = 90 (7), Social = 85 (0), Foreign = 79 (14). Average = 85 (7). 2004: Economic = 63 (36), Social = 82 (0), Foreign = 58 (41). Average = 68 (26). 2005: Economic = 84 (15), Social = 83 (10), Foreign = 66 (29). Average = 78 (18). 2006: Economic = 63 (35), Social = 80 (14), Foreign = 62 (35). Average = 68 (28).
- ^ ADA Voting Records. Americans for Democratic Action. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. Average consists of a 95 in 2001 through 2004 and 2006, and a 100 in 2005.
- ^ 2006 U.S. Senate Votes. American Conservative Union. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
- ^ Clinton SENATE VOTING SUMMARY. Drum Major Institute. Retrieved on 2006-08-22.
- ^ ACLU Congressional Scorecard. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved on 2007-10-15. Breakdown is 3/5 60% for 2001–2002, 7/9 78% for 2003–2004, 10/12 83% for 2005–2006, 4/6 67% for 2007– , for a total of 24/32 75%.
- ^ Senator Hillary Clinton (D-NY). NARAL Pro-Choice America. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
- ^ ’06 National Environmental Scorecard 15. League of Conservation Voters (October 2006). Retrieved on 2007-12-26.
- ^ Immigration Voting Report Card for Sen. Hillary Clinton. Americans for Better Immigration (2007-10-25). Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
- ^ Dave Kopel. “Second Thoughts“, National Review Online, 2006-11-02. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
- ^ “Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton (NY)”. Project Vote Smart. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
- ^ Hillary Rodham Clinton – Talking It Over. Creators Syndicate. Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
- ^ a b Bernstein, A Woman in Charge, p. 446.
- ^ David D. Kirkpatrick. “Hillary Clinton Book Advance, $8 Million, Is Near Record“, The New York Times, 2000-12-16. Retrieved on 2008-01-11.
- ^ Deirdre Donahue. “Clinton memoir tops Best-Selling Books list“, USA Today, 2003-06-17. Retrieved on 2008-01-11.
- ^ “Hillary Clinton’s Book Sales Top a Million“, People’s Daily, 2003-07-10. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
- ^ About Hillary. Hillaryclinton.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
- ^ “Gorbachev and Clinton win Grammy“, BBC News, 2004-02-09. Retrieved on 2008-01-10.
- ^ a b c Maureen Dowd. “Hillary Clinton as Aspiring First Lady: Role Model, or a ‘Hall Monitor’ Type?“, The New York Times, 1992-05-18. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
- ^ a b Todd S. Purdum. “The First Lady’s Newest Role: Newspaper Columnist“, The New York Times, 1995-07-24. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
- ^ a b Amy Sullivan (July/August 2005). Hillary in 2008?. Washington Monthly. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
- ^ Daniel Schorr. (2006-07-16). Hillary Clinton’s Polarizing Force as a Candidate . NPR. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
- ^ Cox, Ana Marie. “How Americans View Hillary: Popular but Polarizing“, Time, 2006-08-19. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
- ^ a b Lanny Davis. “Hillary Clinton: Not Polarizing and Highly Electable“, The Hill, 2007-10-10. Retrieved on 2008-03-03.
- ^ Estrich, Susan (2005). The Case for Hillary Clinton. HarperCollins. ISBN 0060839880. pp. 66–68.
- ^ a b Hetherington, Marc J.; Bruce I. Oppenheimer (April 2007). “The Discounted Voter: Polarization at the Congressional District Level“. University of Wisconsin Epstein Conference.
- ^ a b Jacobson, A Divider, Not a Uniter, pp. 7, 9.
- ^ a b c Jacobson, Gary C. (2008). A Divider, Not a Uniter: George W. Bush and the American People — The 2006 Election and Beyond. Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-0-205-52974-2. pp. 14–15.
- ^ Bernhardt, Dan; Stefan Krasa, Mattias Polborn (January 2008). “Political Polarization and the Electoral Effects of Media Bias“. Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich/Ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
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